Study of Heavy Metal Contaminations in Green Leafy Vegetables and Fruits of Kitwe District, Zambia
International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy
Volume 4, Issue 5, September 2016, Pages: 120-125
Received: Jul. 7, 2016; Accepted: Aug. 5, 2016; Published: Aug. 30, 2016
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John Siame, Department of Chemical Engineering, Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
Kabanda Masenga, Department of Chemical Engineering, Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
James Mulwanda, Department of Chemical Engineering, Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
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The heavy metal concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Pb and Fe in fruits – Eggplant (Solanum melongena), Lemon (Citrus limon), Tomato (solanum lycopersicum) and Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV) – Pumpkin Leaves (telfairia occidentalis), Rape (brasicca napus), were analyzed. GLV and fruits were purchased from four different market locations (Chamboli, Chisokone, Chimwemwe and Chipata markets) located in and around Kitwe District, Zambia. The heavy metal concentrations in GLV and fruits were determined using the Perkin-Elmer 2380 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Most of the results obtained from the analysis showed high levels of heavy metal concentrations as compared to standards permissible by World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The levels of heavy metal concentrations in GLV ranged from 1.40 to 7.80 mg/kg Fe; 0.50 to 4.10 mg/kg Cu; 0.35 to 4.0 mg/kg Co; 2.00 to 9.00 mg/kg Ni; 0.70 to 5.05 mg/kg Zn; 0.40 to 1.10 mg/kg Pb, while for fruits the levels ranged from 1.30 to 7.50 mg/kg Fe; 0.50 to 3.20 mg/kg Cu; 0.50 to 4.00 Co; 1.17 to 5.10 mg/kg Ni; 0.20 to 1.25 mg/kg Zn and 0.18 to 0.50 mg/kg Pb. The high levels of heavy metal concentrations in most of the GLV and fruits could be attributed to the various anthropogenic activities taking place in the four locations, with mining activities being the most common contributor. However, if not controlled or monitored by local authorities, the health effects that come with consuming contaminated food may be fatal.
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Concentrations, Contaminations, Fruits, Green Leafy Vegetables, Heavy Metals
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John Siame, Kabanda Masenga, James Mulwanda, Study of Heavy Metal Contaminations in Green Leafy Vegetables and Fruits of Kitwe District, Zambia, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy. Vol. 4, No. 5, 2016, pp. 120-125. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepp.20160405.12
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