Energy Efficiency and Low Carbon Strategy on Rural Tourism Area: A Case of Mount Annapurna Trekking Route
Tourism is one of the major industries in Nepal and rural tourism is an emerging dimension in the country. This paper explores the energy consumption and emission pattern up to 2030 in the commercial sector (Hotel and Lodge) of rural tourism and conservation area. Trekking route of Mount Annapurna base camp (4130 meter) was considered for study. From the household survey of study area total energy consumption in the commercial sector was 5,560 GJ (36.26 GJ/HH) in 2014. Fuel wood was the major source of energy contributing 70.06% share on total energy and electricity contributes shares of only 13.67%. This shows high dependence on traditional fuels, which result in the degradation of forest engendering the imbalance in fragile ecosystem of conservation area. This study uses Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) modeling framework to analyze three scenarios of energy system development. First one is the business as usual scenario based on the historical trend and government plans and policies. Second is the clean kitchen scenario where efficient end use technologies are introduced in demand side and the third one is low carbon scenario where clean and renewable energy sources are introduced in supply side. It is found that under business as usual scenario the energy consumption was 5560 GJ and GHG emission was 27.3 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents in 2014 and they are expected to increase by 2.26% and 1.8% respectively from 2014 to 2030. The clean kitchen scenario and low carbon scenario analyzed in this study has a significant reduction in energy consumption by 14 percent and 54.5 percent respectively in year 2030. The cumulative energy saving equivalent to the electricity saving value accounts for NRs 213 million and NRs 811.2 million at current price of electricity of Nepal. The average cumulative fuel wood saving was found to be 307 metric tons (1.8 tons per HH) for clean kitchen scenario and 1063 metric tons (6.25 tons per HH) for the low carbon scenario. The model output shows emission reduction of 2.24 percent for the clean kitchen scenario and 44.7 percent in low carbon scenario for the year 2030. Government of Nepal and Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACAP) should formulate and implement policies and strategic planning referring the assumption of clean kitchen and low carbon scenario to reduce dependency on fuel wood for protection of the fragile ecosystem of conservation area and to maintain eco-tourism.
Shree Raj Shakya,
Energy Efficiency and Low Carbon Strategy on Rural Tourism Area: A Case of Mount Annapurna Trekking Route, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy.
Vol. 4, No. 5,
2016, pp. 133-140.
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