International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy
Volume 5, Issue 4, July 2017, Pages: 61-69
Received: Apr. 30, 2017;
Accepted: May 13, 2017;
Published: Jul. 11, 2017
Views 3027 Downloads 205
Salma Sultan, Environmental Economics Unit, Dhaka School of Economics (DScE), University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Government of India in recent past took a number of proactive initiatives in the form of changes in policies, institutions and management mechanisms to address the problem of municipal solid waste management. Despite these changes, results are believed to be less than expected ones. Increasing economic growth is bound to generate more wastes and managing these wastes needs both budgetary and technical resources. In view of scarcity of resources, there is thus a need for a paradigm shift in the approach to solid waste management in India. Among other things, this requires a thorough and dispassionate understanding of the gravity of the situation and a critical diagnosis of the response measures. Though underlying issues are to a large extent same across continents, countries, cities and municipalities, yet some issues are specific in this context. Thus, both commonalities and specificities have to be discerned and analyzed. It is against this background that the present paper is designed to present an overview of the existing municipal solid waste management practices from the global to national and national to local level perspectives in reference to the Indian cities. Particular emphasis has also been laid on to assess the overall solid waste generation and management services practiced by the Indian municipalities. Besides these, various legal, institutional and policy issues relating to urban solid waste management in the Indian context have also been reviewed to strengthen the argument in favour of the need for efficient solid waste management services for the Indian cities. It can be observed from the literature review that despite a number of positive initiatives taken by India in recent years, the state of the urban solid waste management is still far from a satisfactory level and there is thus an urgent need to address the issue by involving residents, private sector players and non-governmental organizations along with civic authorities.
Solid Waste Management in Urban India: An Overview, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy.
Vol. 5, No. 4,
2017, pp. 61-69.
Akolkar, A. B., “Status of Solid Waste Management in India, Implementation Status of Municipal Solid Wastes”, Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi, 2005.
Annepu, Ranjith Kharvel, “Sustainable Solid Waste Management in India”, M. Sc. Thesis submitted to the Columbia University in the City of New York, Unpublished, USA, 2012.
APO, “Solid Waste Management- Issues and Challenges in Asia”, Asian Productivity Organization (APO), Tokyo, Japan, 2007.
Athena Infonomics India Private Ltd, “Public private partnerships in solid waste management- potential and strategies”, Athena Infornomics India Private Limited, India, 2012.
Bhatt, M. S. and Illiyan, Asheref, “Solid Waste Management: An Indian Perspective”, Synergy Books India, New Delhi, India, 2012.
Census of India. Online retrieval at: http://www.census2011.co.in/census/state/delhi.html.
CII, “E-Waste Management”, Green Business Opportunities, Vol. 12, Issue I, Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), Delhi, 2011.
NIUA, “Compendium of Good Practices: Urban Solid Waste Management in Indian Cities”, National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA), New Delhi, India, 2015.
CPCB, Annual Report 2014-15, Central Pollution Control Board, Government of India, New Delhi, India, 2016.
IMF, “The Demographic Dividends- Evidence from the Indian States”, International Monetary Fund (IMF) Working Paper No. 38, European Department, IMF, 2011.
IMF, World Economic Outlook Database, International Monetary Fund, Washington DC.
India Infrastructure Report, 2006, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kanpur, India, 2014.
JnNURM, Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission; at: http://jnnurm.nic.in/; accessed on 5 October 2014.
Joshi, Rajkumar and Ahmed, Sirajuddin, “Status and Challenges of Municipal Solid Waste Management in India: A Review”, Cogent Environmental Science, Vol. 2, 2016.
MCD, Municipal Corporation of Delhi, at: http://www.mcdonline.gov.in/, 2014.
Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000, Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of India, 2000.
Pandey, Dr. P K., “Management of Solid Waste in India: A Legal Study”, Journal of Science Forum, Vol. II, No. 1, India, 2011.
RBI, Handbook of the Statistics of the Indian Economy 2013-14, Research Bank of India (RBI), online access: http://rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/Publications/PDFs/000HSE13120914FL.pdf accessed on 5 October 2014.
The World Bank, “What a Waste: A Global Review of Solid Waste Management”, Urban Development Series Knowledge Paper No. 68135, the World Bank, USA, 2012.
UNEP, “Recycling- From E-waste to Resources”, Sustainable Innovation and Technology Transfer Industrial Studies, United Nations Environment Programme, 2010.