International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy
Volume 6, Issue 2, March 2018, Pages: 26-31
Received: Mar. 22, 2018;
Accepted: Apr. 15, 2018;
Published: May 21, 2018
Views 953 Downloads 57
Chimwemwe Mndelemani, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou, China
Yinling Song, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou, China
Fankai Wei, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou, China
Ya Chen, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou, China
Only 10% of the population in Malawi has access to electricity and there is increasing surface water pollution especially in urban areas. This research was conducted with the objectives of improving electricity generation and reducing water pollution in Malawi. A chemically enhanced primary treatment-trickling filter (CEPT-TF) system with Moringa oleifera (MO) seeds as a coagulant is proposed for municipal wastewater (WW) treatment to achieve both objectives. CEPT improves energy recovery by increasing the proportion of captured raw COD whose anaerobic digestion gives higher CH4 yield than secondary COD. The COD removal efficiency of MO was investigated by conducting jar tests and COD tests using WW samples from three different WWTPs in Suzhou New District, China. The amount of energy recoverable was estimated using an equation derived from COD removal efficiencies and the stoichiometric relationships between COD and CH4. The results showed a COD removal efficiency of 74% with MO concentration of 50mg/l for 880mg/l COD which is an average COD for municipal WW in Malawi. It is found that the WWTPs in Malawi’s two big cities of Blantyre and Lilongwe have the potential of producing 9,781.86kWh/d of electricity. CEPT-TF will offer sustainable solutions in Malawi, MO can be planted on sites creating closed loop systems as it provides the coagulant and gets watered and nourished with the effluent from the WWTP.
Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment-Trickling Filter with Moringa oleifera Seeds for Improved Energy Recovery from Wastewater Treatment Plants in Malawi, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy.
Vol. 6, No. 2,
2018, pp. 26-31.
Phiri, E., Rowley, P., & Blanchard, R. (2017). Meeting the water and energy needs in the rural areas of Malawi using solar PV technologies. 40th WEDC International Conference. Loughborough.
Long, S. T., Kingdom, K., Leonard, M., Navarro, V. A., Simon, B., Yacob, M., et al. (2017). Policy perspectives on expanding cogeneration from bagasse in Malawi. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, 45-53.
Nation Publication Limited (NPL). (2017, November 1). Nation Publication Limited (NPL). Retrieved April 12, 2018, from THE NATION: http://mwnation.com/from-bad-to-worse/
Malawi Government. (2017). Malawi Growth Strategy and Development (III).
Ministry of Transport and Public Works. (2017). Malawi National Transport Master Plan.
Yifan, G., Yue, L., Xuyao, L., Pengzhou, L., Hongtao, W., & Xin, W. (2017). Energy self-sufficient wastewater treatment plants: Feasibilities and Challengies. Energy Procedia, 3741 – 3751.
Chipofya, V. H (2010). Training System for Conceptual Design and Evaluation for Wastewater Treatment. Lappeenranta university of Technology.
Carl Bro International. (1995). Sanitation Master Plan Study for City of Blantyre.
Phekiso Consulting. (2017). Provision of Consultancy Services to Assess Five Treatment Sites in Blantyre.
Davis, M. L. (2011). Water and Wastewater Engineering Design Principles and Practice. Michigan: Mc Graw Hill.
Nikolay, M., & Kulakov, A. (2017). Perculiarities of clarifiers' reconstruction at waste water treatment plants. MATEC Web of Conferences 112.
Ahmed, S. A. (2007). FAST-TRACK EVALUATION OF A COMPACT CHEMICALLY ENHANCED-TRICKLING FILTER SYSTEM. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 171-184.
Giorgio, B., Matteo, C., & Giuseppe, L. (2017). Towards energy self-sufficiency and integral material recovery in waste water treatment plants: Assessment of upgrading options. Journal of Cleaner Production, 1206-1218.
Banga, J. (2017). Wastewater Treatment Engineering. New York: Arcler Press LLC.
Wan, J., Gu, J., Zhao, Q., & Liu, Y. (2016). COD Capture: a Feasible Option Towards Energy Self-sufficient Domestic Wastewater Treatment. Scientific Reports.
Water Environment Federation (WEF) and American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). (2009). DESIGN OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS WEF Manual of Practice No. 8, ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 7 Fifth Edition. Alexandria: WEF Press.
Qingliang, Z., Zhong, H., Wang, K., Liangliang, W., Jinli, L., & Yu, L. (2013). Removal and transformation of organic matters in domestic wastewater during lab-scale chemically enhanced primary treatment and a trickling filter treatment. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 59-68.
Haimanot Habte, L., & Hartmut, E. (2013). A pilot scale trickling filterwith pebble grsvel as media and its performance to remove chemical oxygen demand from synthetic brewery wastewater. Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B, 924-933.
Marandi, R., & Sepehr, S. M. (2011). Removal of Orange 7 Dye from Wastewater Used by Natural Adsorbent of Moringa Oleifera Seeds. American Journal of Environmental Engineering, 1-9.
Gidde, M. R., Bhalerao, A. R., & N. Malusare, C. (2012). Comparative Study of Different Forms of Moringa Oleifera Extracts for Turbidity Removal. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, 14-21.
Shirin, N., Pascual, M., Maja, H. S., Habauka, K. M., Maximilian, S. W., Fredrik, H., et al. (2018). Sticking Particles to solid surfaces using Moringa oleifera proteins as a glue. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces.
Sotheeswaran, S., Nand, V., Matakite, M., & Kanayathu, K. (2011). Moringa oleifera and other local seeds in water purification in developing countries. Research Journal on Chemistry and Environment, 135-138.
Ashenafi, D., Samuel, S., & Husen, A. (2018). Water purification and antibacterial efficacy of Moringa oleifera Lam. Agriculture and Food Security.
Sivakumar, D. (2013). Adsorption study on municipal solid waste leachate using Moringa oleifera seed. International Environmental Science and Technology, 113-124.
Jhon Jairo, F. D., Gaston, B., & Juan Pablo Rodriguez, M. (2018). Influence of Storage Time of Moringa oleifera Seed on the Coagulant Activity Efficiency for Raw Water Treatment. Indian Journal of Science and Technology.
Mohsen, D., & Mohammad Hossein, A. (2016). The effects of the natural coagulant Moringa oleifera and alum in wastewater treatment at the Bandar Abbas Oi Refinery. Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal, 225-230.