An Assessment of Social and Economic Indicators in Pilot REDD+ Communities of Afi/Mbe in Cross River State, Nigeria
International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy
Volume 6, Issue 3, May 2018, Pages: 63-70
Received: Aug. 29, 2018;
Accepted: Sep. 12, 2018;
Published: Sep. 29, 2018
Views 1054 Downloads 70
Adeniran Akanni, Department of Environmental Planning, Climate Change, Lagos State Ministry of Environment, Lagos, Nigeria
Poverty alleviation for forest dependent communities is one of the key objectives of Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation-plus (REDD+), apart from climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation. There is need to avoid adverse social and economic consequences by adopting strong safeguard and measures if REDD+ is to have positive impacts for climate mitigation and biodiversity conservation. A Participatory Community Wellbeing Assessment (CWA) tool was used to measure some socio-economic indicators as it relates particularly with regard to basic needs, safety needs, belonging needs, self-esteem as well as spiritual needs in eight selected communities in Afi/Mbe, one of the pilot REDD+ project sites in Cross-River State, Nigeria. The findings reveal that 62.5% of the communities sampled had much decline in their food security from pre-REDD+ period while 37.5% of the communities had slight decline on the same indicator. The trend in reduction in food security in the communities particularly with reference to pre-REDD+ era is also reflected in trends in savings. 62.5% of the communities’ sampled had decline in savings indicator. This has some implication on the security need due to inability to buffer for the future. The alternative livelihood indicator showed that only 25% of communities sampled has one form of alternative livelihood or the other. The effect of REDD+ on the basic need indicator is also reflected in the inability of resident farmers to build new houses of their own. Outsiders like Civil servants now come into the communities to erect houses. This poses a serious equity issue for local residents. A set of recommendations for improving alternative livelihoods, health and education in the communities are proffered in addition to means of leveraging REDD+ to achieve sustainable development objectives in Nigeria. The study can form a basis for formulation of policies and measures with regards to REDD+ social safeguards and equity in REDD+ process in line with UN-REDD proposed social and environmental safeguards criteria.
An Assessment of Social and Economic Indicators in Pilot REDD+ Communities of Afi/Mbe in Cross River State, Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy.
Vol. 6, No. 3,
2018, pp. 63-70.
UNFCCC (2010). Cancun Agreement: http://unfccc.int/meetings/cancun_nov_2010/items/6005.php.
Kaczan David, Swallow Brent, Adamowicz Vick, & Vihemäki Heini (2011). Designing an Incentive Program to Reduce On-farm Deforestation in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. University of Alberta.
Kanowski, Peter, McDermott Constance, Cashore Benjamin (2011). Implementing REDD+: lessons from analysis of forest governance. Environmental Science &Policy14, 111-117.
Food and Agricultural Organization0 (FAO) (2010) Global Forest Resources Assessment http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1757e/i1757e.pdf.
McCarthy Oyebo, Francis Bisong and Tunde Morakinyo (2011): A UNDP and Federal Ministry of Environment preliminary Assessment of the context for REDD+ in Nigeria.
Angelsen, Arild. (2008). How do we set the reference levels for REDD payments. Moving ahead with REDD: issues, options and implications, 53-64.
Phelps Jacob, Webb Edward & Agrawal Arun (2010). Does REDD+ threaten to recentralize forest governance? Science, 328(5976), 312-313.
Lopez-Casero Federico (2012). Towards REDD+ implementation. Strengtenening governance and law enforcement in Indonesia and Brazil through policy coordination and international cooperation. Reseacher’s viewpoint.Institute for Global Environmental Strategy (IGES). http://www.iges.or.jp/en/commentary/commentary_201212_lopez.html.
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (2010). Global Expert Workshop on Biodiversity benefits of REDD in Developing Countries. http://www.cbd.int/doc/?meeting=EWREDD-01 (Web link accessed in November, 2012).
Leonardo Crippa and Gretchan Gordon (2012). International Law Principles for REDD: The rights of Indigenous people and the legal obligations of REDD+ actors. Published by Indian law resource center.
Loft, L., Ravikumar, A., Gebara, M. F., Pham, T. T., Resosudarmo, I. A. P., Assembe-Mvondo, S., Tovar, J. G., Mwangi, E. & Andersson, K. (2015) Taking stock of carbon rights in REDD+ candidate countries: concept meets reality. Forests 6: 1031–1060.
UN-DRIP (2007). Resolutions adopted by the General Assembly.; http:// www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfili/documents/DRIPS-en.
Suneetha Subramanian and Pisupati Balakrishna (2009). Benefit sharing perspectives from enterprising communities: http://www.ias.unu.edu/sub_page.aspx?catID=732&ddlID=10811.
UN-REDD (2011b). UN-REDD program social & environmental principles and criteria, Version 1. Six policy board meeting, Da Lat, Viet Nam. http://www.un-redd.org/PolicyBoard/6thPolicyBoard/tabid/6893/default.aspx.
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) 2012: Cybertracker field map for Afi/Mbe monitoring from remote sensing toolkit used by field officers.
Ottong Joseph, Ering Simon, Akpan Felix (2010). The population situation in Cross River state of Nigeria and it’s implication for socio-economic development: Observations from 1991 and 2006 censuses. Journal of emerging trends in educational research and policy studies 1 (1):36-42.
Morgan Bethan, Adeleke Alade, Bassey Tony, Bergl Richard, Dunn Andrew, Fotso Roger, Gadsby Elizabeth, Gonder Katy, Greengrass Elizabeth, Koulagna Denis, Mbah Grace, Nicholas Aaron, Oates John, Omeni Fidelis, Saidu Yohanna, Sommer Volker, Sunderland-Groves Jacqueline, Tiebou Joseph, and Williamson Elizabeth.(2011). Regional action plan for the conservation of the Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzee. IUCN/SSC primate specialist group and Zoological society of San Diego. CA. USA.
Governors Climate Forum (GCF) (2010). Database. http://www.gcftaskforce.org.
Narayanasamy, Nammalvar. (2009). Participatory rural appraisal: Principles, methods and applications. New Delhi: Sage publications.
Huitt, Williams. (2007). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Educational Psychology Interactive, 1-5. http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/conation/maslow.html.
Clarke, Matthew (2006). Assessing well-being using hierarchical needs, In Mc Gillivray, Mark and Matthew Clarke, 2006, Understanding human well-being, United Nations University World Institute for Development Research, United Nations University press.
New Economic Foundation (NEF) (2010). http://www.neweconomics.org/sites/neweconomics.org/files/measuring-our.programs.pdf.
UNDP (2012). Ekuri Initiative, Nigeria. Equator Initiative case study series. New York, N. Y. http://www.equatorinitiative.org/images/stories/winners/66/casestudy/case_1348153030.pdf.
Regional Community Forestry Training Center for Asia and the Pacific (RECOFTC) (2008). People, Forest, and Human well-being. Managing forest for people in a period of change. A synthesis report. Published by RECOFTC. http://www.recoftc.org/site/uploads/content/pdf/SynthesisReport_Final_56.pdf9.
Coomes, Oliver T., Takasaki, Yoshito, Rhemtulla, J. M., 2016. Forests as landscapes ofsocial inequality: tropical forest cover and land distribution aong shifting cultivators. Ecol. Soc. 21, 20.
Lopez-Casero Federico and Ukesh Bhuju (2009). From shifting cultivation to sustainable livelihood creation; strengthening marginalized communities through institutional development of micro finance for Agro forestry and energy-efficient technologies-Forest conservation, Livelihoods and Rights project. Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES).
de Koning Free, Aguiñaga, Marcel, Bravo Manuel, Chiu Marco, Lascano Max, Lozada Tannya, & Suarez Luis. (2011). Bridging the gap between forest conservation and poverty alleviation: the Ecuadorian Socio Bosque program. Environmental Science & Policy, 14(5), 531-542.
Chomba, Susan, Kariuki, Juliet, Friis Lund, Jens, Sinclair, Fergus, 2016. Roots of inequity:how the implementation of REDD+ reinforces past injustices. Land Use Policy 50,202–213.
Oxfam (2012). R4 rural resilience initiative quarterly report. January-March 2012. Published by Oxfam, America. http://www.oxfamamerica.org/publications/r4-rural-resilience-initiative-19k.