Artisans’ Willingness-to-Pay for Safe Collection and Recycling of Used Automobile Lead-Acid Batteries in Kumasi, Ghana
International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy
Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2019, Pages: 1-8
Received: Oct. 5, 2018; Accepted: Jan. 25, 2019; Published: Feb. 22, 2019
Views 302      Downloads 26
Authors
Evelyn Delali Ahiale, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Education, University of Education, Winneba, Mampong, Ghana
Emmanuel Dartey, Faculty of Science and Environment Education, University of Education, Winneba, Mampong, Ghana
Isaac Abunyuwah, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Education, University of Education, Winneba, Mampong, Ghana
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Growing demand for automobiles has logically led to the generation of huge quantities of used Lead-Acid Battery (LAB) which are usually found stockpiling in and around car-repair shops all over Ghana. The reclamation and recycling of spent LABs in the country is mainly unregulated and informal and therefore not done in a sustainable and eco-friendly manner. This paper estimates artisans’ willingness to pay (WTP) for the safe collection and recycling of used lead-acid batteries (LABs) with data collected through the contingent valuation method (CVM) from 102 artisans in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana. Artisans’ WTP and its determinants were estimated using Bayesian estimation of the interval data regression model. An estimated mean WTP of GH¢16.06 (US$3.87) was obtained for the safe removal and recycling of any one (1) spent LAB. Important artisan characteristics influencing willingness to pay positively are age and monthly income whereas experience influences willingness-to-pay negatively. Training received, awareness of risk of LABs to personal health, wearing of protective clothing, and other safety measures are significant awareness, knowledge and safety factors affecting WTP in a positive way. Sensitization on the health and environmental effects of LABs as well as the importance of taking safety measures should be given to artisans and should be mainly targeted at younger artisans.
Keywords
Used Lead-acid Battery, Recycle, Contingent-Valuation-Method (CVM), Interval-Data Regression Model, Willingness-to-Pay (WTP)
To cite this article
Evelyn Delali Ahiale, Emmanuel Dartey, Isaac Abunyuwah, Artisans’ Willingness-to-Pay for Safe Collection and Recycling of Used Automobile Lead-Acid Batteries in Kumasi, Ghana, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy. Vol. 7, No. 1, 2019, pp. 1-8. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepp.20190701.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
ILA, "Lead Uses - Statistics," in In: Lead facts vol. 2018 London: International Lead Association, 2017.
[2]
P. Gottesfeld and A. K. Pokhrel, "Review: Lead exposure in battery manufacturing and recycling in developing countries and among children in nearby communities," J Occup Environ Hyg, vol. 8, pp. 520-532, 2011.
[3]
UNEP, "National management plans for used lead acid batteries. Training manual for the preparation of national used lead acid batteries environmentally sound management plans in the context of the implementation of the Basel Convention. Basel Convention Series / SBC No 2004/5," Geneva: United Nations Environment Programme, 2004.
[4]
S. Zafar, "The Problem of Used Lead-Acid Batteries." vol. 2018: Echoing Sustainability in MENA, 2016.
[5]
S. A. Ahmad, M. H. Khan, S. Khandker, A. F. M. Sarwar, N. Yasmin, M. H. Faruquee, and R. Yasmin, "Blood Lead Levels and Health Problems of Lead Acid Battery Workers in Bangladesh," The Scientific World Journal, pp. 7, 2014.
[6]
ATSDR, "Toxicological profile for lead," Atlanta, GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 2007.
[7]
A. A. El Karim, A. A. S. Hamed, Y. A. A. Elhaimi, and Y. Osman, "Effects of Exposure to Lead among Lead-Acid Battery Factory Workers in Sudan," Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal, vol. 41, pp. 261-265, 1986.
[8]
A. Gao, X. T. Lu, Q. Y. Li, and L. Tian, "Effect of the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase gene polymorphism on renal and neurobehavioral function in workers exposed to lead in China," Sci Total Environ, vol. 408, pp. 4052-5, Sep 1, 2010.
[9]
M. J. Kosnett, R. P. Wedeen, S. J. Rothenberg, K. L. Hipkins, B. L. Materna, B. S. Schwartz, H. Hu, and A. Woolf, "Recommendations for Medical Management of Adult Lead Exposure," Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 115, pp. 463-471, 2007.
[10]
C. R. Malavika, "Environmental Effects Associated with Battery Disposal." vol. 2018: Frost & Sullivan, 2004.
[11]
Q. Zhang, "The Current Status on the Recycling of Lead-acid Batteries in China," International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 8, pp. 6457-6466, 2013.
[12]
K. R. Mahaffey, "Nutrition and lead: strategies for public health," Environ Health Perspect, vol. 103, pp. 191–196, 1995.
[13]
WHO, "Recycling used lead acid batteries: health considerations," World Health Organization, Geneva 2017.
[14]
O. A. Ogunseitan and T. R. Smith, "The cost of environmental lead (Pb) poisoning in Nigeria," African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 1, pp. 27-36, 2007.
[15]
A. Manhart and T. Schleicher, "The recycling chain for used lead-acid batteries in Ghana - Observations and general considerations," Institute for Applied Ecology, Freiburg, 2015.
[16]
T. J. van der Kuijp, L. Huang, and C. R. Cherry, "Health hazards of China's lead-acid battery industry: a review of its market drivers, production processes, and health impacts," Environmental Health, vol. 12, pp. 61-61, 2013.
[17]
W. E. Daniell, L. Van Tung, R. M. Wallace, D. J. Havens, C. J. Karr, N. Bich Diep, G. A. Croteau, N. J. Beaudet, and N. Duy Bao, "Childhood Lead Exposure from Battery Recycling in Vietnam," BioMed Research International, pp. 10, 2015.
[18]
UNEP, "Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound management of waste lead-acid batteries," in Technical Working Group of the Basel Convention Geneva: United Nations Environment Programme, 2002.
[19]
P. Kumar, S. G. Husain, R. C. Murthy, S. P. Srivastava, M. Anand, M. M. Ali, and P. K. Seth, "Neuropsychological studies on lead battery workers," Veterinary and Human Toxicology, vol. 44, pp. 76-78, 2002.
[20]
R. Minozzo, E. L. Minozzo, L. I. Deimling, and R. Santos-Mello, "Blood lead levels in the battery recycling industry of the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre," Brazilian Journal of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 44, pp. 407-412, 2008.
[21]
A. O. Peter, "Total blood and urinary lead levels in battery charging artisans in two metropolitan cities of South West Nigeria," Journal of Applied Biosciences, vol. 14, pp. 796-799, 2009.
[22]
E. Dartey, B. Berlinger, Y. Thomassen, D. G. Ellingsen, J. Ã. Odland, V. K. Nartey, F. A. Yeboah, and S. Weinbruch, "Bioaccessibility of lead in airborne particulates from car battery repair work," Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, vol. 16, pp. 2782-2788, 2014.
[23]
E. Dartey, B. Berlinger, S. Weinbruch, Y. Thomassen, J. Ã. Odland, J. Brox, V. K. Nartey, F. A. Yeboah, and D. G. Ellingsen, "Essential and non-essential trace elements among working populations in Ghana," Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, vol. 44, pp. 279-287, 2017.
[24]
E. Dartey, K. Sarpong, and I. Owusu-Mensah, "Association between Soil and Blood Lead Levels of Small Scale Battery Repair Workers in Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana," International Journal of Environmental Protection, vol. 6, pp. 75-80, 2016.
[25]
J. L. Knetsch and J. A. Sinden, "Willingness to Pay and Compensation Demanded: Experimental Evidence of an Unexpected Disparity in Measures of Value," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 99, pp. 507-521, 1984.
[26]
J. Anderson, D. Vadnjal, and H.-E. Uhlin, "Moral dimensions of the WTA-WTP disparity: an experimental examination," Ecological Economics, vol. 32, pp. 153-162, 2000.
[27]
J. L. Knetsch, "Biased valuations, damage assessments, and policy choices: The choice of measure matters," Ecological Economics, vol. 63, pp. 684-689, 2007.
[28]
R. C. Ready, J. C. Whitehead, and G. C. Blomquist, "Contingent Valuation When Respondents Are Ambivalent," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, vol. 29, pp. 181-196, 1995.
[29]
FAO, Applications of the contingent valuation method in developing countries: A survey vol. 146. Rome: United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, 2000.
[30]
R. C. Mitchell and R. T. Carson, Using surveys to value public goods: The contingent valuation method: Resources for the Future, Washington DC, 1989.
[31]
A. Alberini, "Efficiency vs Bias of Willingness-to-Pay Estimates: Bivariate and Interval-Data Models," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, vol. 29, pp. 169-180, 1995.
[32]
C. A. Vossler, J. Kerkvliet, S. Polasky, and O. Gainutdinova, "Externally validating contingent valuation: an open-space survey and referendum in Corvallis, Oregon," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, vol. 51, pp. 261-277, 2003.
[33]
T. Broberg and R. Brännlund, "An alternative interpretation of multiple bounded WTP data--Certainty dependent payment card intervals," Resource and Energy Economics, vol. 30, pp. 555-567, 2008.
[34]
M. P. Welsh and G. L. Poe, "Elicitation Effects in Contingent Valuation: Comparisons to a Multiple Bounded Discrete Choice Approach," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, vol. 36, pp. 170-185, 1998.
[35]
M. Kobayashi, K. Rollins, and M. D. R. Evans, "Sensitivity of WTP Estimates to Definition of ˜Yes': Reinterpreting Expressed Response Intensity," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, vol. 39, pp. 37-55, 2010.
[36]
M. F. Evans, N. E. Flores, and K. J. Boyle, "Multiple-Bounded Uncertainty Choice Data as Probabilistic Intentions," Land Economics, vol. 79, pp. 549-560, November 1, 2003 2003.
[37]
W. M. Hanemann, "Willingness to Pay and Willingness to Accept: How Much Can They Differ?," The American Economic Review, vol. 81, pp. 635-647, 1991.
[38]
A. Alberini, K. Boyle, and M. Welsh, "Analysis of contingent valuation data with multiple bids and response options allowing respondents to express uncertainty," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, vol. 45, pp. 40-62, 2003.
[39]
T. A. Cameron, G. L. Poe, R. G. Ethier, and W. D. Schulze, "Alternative Non-market Value-Elicitation Methods: Are the Underlying Preferences the Same?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, vol. 44, pp. 391-425, 2002.
[40]
K. Balcombe, A. Chalak, and I. Fraser, "Model selection for the mixed logit with Bayesian estimation," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, vol. 57, pp. 226-237, 2009.
[41]
G. Koop, Bayesian Econometrics. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2003.
[42]
M. Verbeek, A Guide to Modern Econometrics. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2004.
[43]
Q. Song, Z. Wang, and J. Li, "Residents' behaviors, attitudes, and willingness to pay for recycling e-waste in Macau," Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 106, pp. 8-16, 2012.
[44]
R. Gillespie and J. Bennett, "Willingness to pay for kerbside recycling in Brisbane, Australia," Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, vol. 56, pp. 362-377, 2013.
[45]
A. Challcharoenwattana and C. Pharino, "Wishing to finance a recycling program? Willingness-to-pay study for enhancing municipal solid waste recycling in urban settlements in Thailand," Habitat International, vol. 51, pp. 23-30, 2016.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186