Seasonal Variation of Electrical Conductivity of Groundwater and Its Implication on the Residents of Lafia Municipal Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy
Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2020, Pages: 22-30
Received: Jan. 25, 2020; Accepted: Feb. 17, 2020; Published: Feb. 28, 2020
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Samuel Terungwa Temaugee, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Federal College of Education, Kontagora, Nigeria
Alvan Wariebi, Department of Physics, Federal Polytechnic, Ekowe, Nigeria
Michael Iordye Saakorun, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Federal College of Education, Kontagora, Nigeria
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This study investigated Seasonal Variation of Electrical Conductivity (EC) of Groundwater (Boreholes and Hand-dug Wells) in Lafia Municipal Area, Nasarawa State. A total of seventy (70) samples, consisting of forty (40) and thirty (30) samples were collected from Boreholes and Hand-dug Wells respectively during wet and dry seasons in some major locations, in Lafia Municipal Area. Samples collected were sealed airtight in plastic bottles. The samples were analyzed using the Jenway DDS-307, a standard digital conductivity meter adaptable to temperature variation using a probe. The result analyzed shows that the mean EC value for Hand-dug well water samples ranged from 256.00µS/cm to 1488.00µS/cm during the wet season and 126.00µS/cm to 1416.00µS/cm during the dry season. Similarly, the mean EC for Borehole water samples ranged from 26.70µS/cm to 551.33µS/cm during the wet season and ranges from 28.70µS/cm to 588.00µS/cm during the dry season respectively. Out of thirty (30) Hand-dug wells sampled during the wet and dry seasons, eight (8) had EC values above and approximately to the benchmark value of 1000µS/cm. The results obtained showed that seasonal variation has much effect on the electrical conductivity of Hand-dug wells than Boreholes. The seasonal variation trend revealed that there was increase in the EC of Hand-dug wells during the wet season. However, there was no significant change in EC values of Boreholes. It was therefore recommended that, Hand-dug wells with elavated levels of EC compared with the benchmark should not be used for drinking and cooking.
Electrical Conductivity, Borehole, Hand-dug Well, Groundwater, Seasonal Variation
To cite this article
Samuel Terungwa Temaugee, Alvan Wariebi, Michael Iordye Saakorun, Seasonal Variation of Electrical Conductivity of Groundwater and Its Implication on the Residents of Lafia Municipal Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy. Vol. 8, No. 1, 2020, pp. 22-30. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepp.20200801.13
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This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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