Greening up and the Political Manifestos: A Review of Political Party Manifestos on Issues of the Environment in Malawi
International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy
Volume 8, Issue 5, September 2020, Pages: 94-99
Received: Sep. 16, 2020;
Accepted: Sep. 29, 2020;
Published: Oct. 7, 2020
Views 201 Downloads 32
Aeron Madalitso Anastanzio Nahuku, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences and Health Professions (BMSHP), University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi
Alinune Musopole, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences and Health Professions (BMSHP), University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi
Harrison Bokola, Department of Physics and Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi
Doreen Mdzeka Nahuku, Department of Language and Communications, Faculty of Education and Media Studies, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi
Environmental mismanagement or inequality, or both are a cause of havoc and risk vulnerability to most countries across the globe with the worst hit being the developing ones. Issues of water and food supply crises, extreme energy volatilities, greenhouse gas emissions and its impacts, severe income disparity, chronic fiscal imbalances among others are such examples of risks encountered by countries. Lack of political parties’ substantive ideologies, and that their policy positions are almost identical and often times centered within their political will, has seen the environment being crippled with little to no attention within their manifestos. This study involved a review of 5 political party manifestos in the Malawi 2019 Tripartite Election (TPE) by utilizing the Manifesto Research Group (MRG) methodology of counting the number of environmental sentences in party manifestos for national elections. Total number of statements with those for the environment were compared. Quantitative data management used Microsoft excel and IBM® SPSS® statistics version 23.0 for organization and to further analyse and answer the research question(s). From a total of 5 manifestos whose statement were studied especially on the issues of the environment, a revelation showed that only 60% of the manifestos had a standalone section with the majority of those with sections/chapters registering less than 10 statements on issues of the environment as compared to other sections like for example health and sustainable economic growth. 33% of the available standalone sections had no statement as a commitment in combating issues of the environment. Lack of commitment by parties has been displayed through their manifestos in helping to address problems that surround our environment by having scanty or no section at all. Having an environmental section/chapter with not even one statement on it has evidenced lack of seriousness and prioritization by parties. This just shows that there is little commitment by parties to fight issues of the environment that are a cause of most economic havocs. Parties in Malawi, must therefore consider the environment seriously right at the onset of manifesto development in order to inform proper policy development and implementations.
Aeron Madalitso Anastanzio Nahuku,
Doreen Mdzeka Nahuku,
Greening up and the Political Manifestos: A Review of Political Party Manifestos on Issues of the Environment in Malawi, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy.
Vol. 8, No. 5,
2020, pp. 94-99.
Abazović, D., & Mujkić, A. (2015). Political will: a short introduction Case study-Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES).
Arrow, K., Bolin, B., Costanza, R., Dasgupta, P., Folke, C., Holling, C., &…, D. (1995). Economic Growth, Carrying Capacity, and the Environment. Ecological Economics, 15 (2), 91-95.
Birchall, S. (2014). Termination Theory and National Climate Change Mitigation Programs: the Case of New Zealand. Review of Policy Research, 31 (1), 38-59.
Brulle, R., Carmichael, J., & Jenkins, J. (2012). Shifting Public Opinion on Climate Change: an Empirical Assessment of Factors Influencing Concern Over Climate Change in the U.S., 2002-2010. Climatic Change, 114 (2), 169-188.
DTA. (2014). DTA of Namibia, 2014 Election Manifesto. DTA-Namibia.
EAD. (2010). Malawi State of Environment and Outlook Report; Environment for Sustainable Economic Growth. Lilongwe: Environmental Affairs Department.
Eder, N., Jenny, M., & Müller, W. C. (2017). Manifesto functions: How party candidates view and use their party's central policy document. Journal of Electoral Studies, 75-85. doi: 10.1016/j.electstud.2016.11.011.
Elischer, S. (2012). Measuring and comparing party ideology in nonindustrialized societies: taking party manifesto research to Africa. Democratization, 19 (4), 642 –667.
EPP. (2019). European Peoples Party. Retrieved August 7, 2019, from European Peoples Party website: https://www.epp.eu/files/uploads/2019/05/EPP-MANIFESTO-2019.pdf.
Guha, A., & Joe, E. T. (2019, March 2). ‘Environment’ in the Election Manifestos. Economic and Political Weekly, 54 (9).
Holm, P., Adamson, J., Huang, H., Kirdan, L., Kitch, S., McCalman, I.,... Wehner, K. (2015). Humanities for the Environment-A Manifesto for Research and Action. Journal of Humanities, 4, 977-992. doi: 10.3390/h4040977.
HR. (2019). 2019 Cyclone Idai-Situation Report 2. Humanity Road. Humanity Road.
Michallet, B., Gaeta, G. L., & Facchini, F. (2015). Greening Up or Not? The Determinants Political Parties' Environmental Concerns: An Emperical Analysis Based on European Data (1970-2008). Halshs-01154006.
Mpesi, A. M. (2011, March 22). Special Section: On Malawi Political Parties and their Manifestos: Inferring Party Policy Positions in Malawi since 1994. Altmetric, 38 (1), 25-41.
Neumeyar, E. (2004). The Environment, Left Wing Political Oriantation and the Ecological Economics. Ecological Economics, 54 (3-4), 167-175.
OAGC. (2004). The Report of the Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development to the House of Commons. Canada: The Office of the Auditor General of Canada (OAGC).
OECD. (June, 2012). Green Growth and Developing Countries: CONSULTATION DRAFT. OECD. Retrieved June 13, 2020, from https://www.oecd.org/dac/environment-development/50559116.pdf.
Post, L. A., Raile, A. N., & Raile, E. D. (2010). Defining Political Will. Politics and Policy, 38 (4), 653-676.
Rollinson, S. (2010, Winter). Changing Dynamics of Environmental Politics in Britain: a case study of the UK Climate Change Act. POLIS Journal, 3.
Ryan, D. (2017). Politics and Climate Change: Exploring the Relationship Between Political Parties and Climate Issues in Latin American. Ambiente & Sociedade, 20 (2), 271-286.
UNESCAP. (n.d.). www.unescap.org. Retrieved March 26, 2019, from UNESCAP Website: https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/CH08.PDF.
W. E. F. (2012). Global Risks 2012. Cologny, Geneva.