Determinations of Some Selected Heavy Metals and Elements in Soil of the College’s Farm, College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, North – Eastern Nigeria
International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy
Volume 5, Issue 6-1, December 2017, Pages: 17-22
Received: Mar. 15, 2017;
Accepted: Mar. 16, 2017;
Published: Aug. 21, 2017
Views 1553 Downloads 35
Gwana Adamu Mohammed, Laboratory Unit, Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Buhari Bagudu Yawuri, Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewery, Nnamdi Azikwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Effiong Edet Bassey, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria
Adam Ahmed, Laboratory Unit, Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Mohammed Lawan Shettima, Department of Forestry, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Mohammed Lawan Marte, Department of Geography, Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Hauwa Lawan Badawi, Heritage Unit, Department of Heritage and Monument Sites, National Commission for Museums and Monuments, Maiduguri, Nigeria
This study focuses on the ecosystem – ecological, environmental Pedology determined of some selective heavy metals and elements in soil of the college’s farm, College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Nigeria. Soils were sampled, and collected as described by the method of Ashiq et al, (2013) and analysed by the methods described by AOAC (1990). Results obtained revealed that, the soil sampled found to contained heavy metals and element in moderate amount of mean concentration values in milligrams per gram (mg / g), the element and metals determined were; potassium (K) element had the highest level with the mean concentration of 15 mg / g, and then followed by cadmium (Cd) 9 mg / g, copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) had 1 mg / g each, lead (Pb) had the value of 0.4 mg / g in mean concentration level, while manganese (Mn) had 0.3 mg / g, and finally zinc (Zn) had the mean concentration level of 0.1 mg / g of soil. The magnitude of concentration levels of the heavy metals and elements determined in the soils of the college’s irrigation farm in sequential ascending order was; K > Cd > Cu, Fe and Ni > Pb > Mn > Zn. Also in consideration of their concentration levels in terms of mean percentage (%) amongst the metals and elements determined; K had 54%, Cd had 32%, Fe and Ni had 5% each, Cu had 2%, Mn and Pb had I% each, and finally Zn had 0.5%, i.e. the highest in mean concentration levels was potassium (K), the least was zinc and it is not contaminated by the metals and the elements determined as well respectively. Human activities have dramatically changed the 10 metres position and organization of the soil. The industrial and mining activates in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soil. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation. It is recommended that further study needs to be carried out in order to ascertain, assess and state the heavy metals and elements mean concentration levels in soil of the said study area, and all farms at large.
Gwana Adamu Mohammed,
Buhari Bagudu Yawuri,
Effiong Edet Bassey,
Mohammed Lawan Shettima,
Mohammed Lawan Marte,
Hauwa Lawan Badawi,
Determinations of Some Selected Heavy Metals and Elements in Soil of the College’s Farm, College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, North – Eastern Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy. Special Issue:The Role of SLT: Environmental Impact Assessment And Statement Concept.
Vol. 5, No. 6-1,
2017, pp. 17-22.
Alloway, B. J and Ayres D. C. 1997. “Chemistry Principal for Environment Pollution”, Blackie Academic and Professional, Pp. 190–221.
AOAC. “Official Methods of Analysis”. 1990. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th Edition, AOAC Press, Gaithersburg, USA.
Ashiq, H. L., Eugenia, P. L., Sasva, T., Ganie, S. A., Mohammed, S. W., Ani, K., Sajad, H. W., Fayaz, A. W. 2013. “Accumulation of Heavy Metals on Soil and Vegetable Crops Grown on Sewage and Tube Well Water Irrigation”, Academic Journal, Vol. 8, No. 44, pp. 2187–2193.
Bear, F. E. 1965. Soils in Relation to Crop Growth, Rein – Hold, New York, 1st edition, pp. 2–5.
Bhata, S. C. 2002. Environmental Chemistry, CBS Publishers and Distribution, New Delhi, India, pp. 442.
Buol, S. W., Hole, F. D., McCracken, R. I. 1973. ‘’Soil Genesis and Classification, 1 edition, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa; pp: 1–10.
Bunce, N. J. 1990. Environmental Chemistry, Winners Publishing Ltd, Winnipeg, Canada, pp. 206–247.
Chesworth, W. 2008. “Encyclopedia of Soil Science”, Chesworth Ward edition, Dordrecht, Netherland, Springer; pp: 24.
Csuros, M and Csuros, C. 2002. Environmental Sampling and Analysis for Metals, Lewis Publisher, CRC Press, New York; Pp. 237–238.
Dononohoe, R. L., Miller, R. W., Shickula, J. C. 1977. “An Introduction to Soil and Plant Growth”, 4th edition, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, pp: 40–47.
Fischbein, A. 1992. Occupation and Environmental Lead Exposure in Environment and Occ upation Medicine, Ron, WW (ed), Little Brown.
Gillully, W. W. 1975. “Principles of Geology”, 4th edition, W. H. Freeman, USA; PP: 31–35. International Journal of Environ
Gwana, A. M., Auwal, M. S., Bagudu, B. Y., Gazali, Y. A. 2013. Study Area and Location; In: Comparative Parasitological Diagnostic Techniques in the Survey of Haemoparasites of Camel Slaughtered in Maiduguri Central Abattoir, North – Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Laboratory Science, 1, (2); Pp: 57–65.
Gwana, A. M., Mshelia, N. H., Abdullahi, M. M., Auwal, M. S., Bagudu, B. Y., Mala, B. M., Abdullahi, H. M., Sadiq, A. B. 2014. Effect of Domestic Waste from Shallow – Wells in Moduganari, Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 185–190.
Gwana, A. M., Bassey, E. E., Buhari, B. Y., Mala, A. M., Umaru, B. W., Mohammed, L. S., Shettima, U. K., Halima, M. B. Role of Slt: Environmental Impact Assessments and Statements Concept. International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy, Special Issue: The role of SLT: Environmental Impact Assessment and Statement Concept, Vol. 5, No. 6-1, pp. 1–7. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepp.s.2017050601.11.
Huges, M. K; Lepp, W. W and Philips, D. A. 1980. Industrial Heavy Metal, Pollution and Terrestrial Ecosystem, Advance Ecological Research, 11, pp, 217–227.
Ibitoye, A. A. 2006. Soil, In: Laboratory Manual on Basic Soil Analysis, Foladaye Publishers Nigeria Ltd, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, pp. 1.
Jayedev, E. and Puttah, T. 2013. Assessment of Heavy Metals Uptake in Leafy Vegetables Grown on Long Term Waste Water Irrigated Soil Across Vrishabhavathi River, Bangalore, Karnataka, Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, Vol. 7; pp. 52–55.
McCarthy, D. F. 1982. “Essential of Soil Mechanics and Foundations”, In: Basic Geotechnics, 2nd Edition, pp. 55–81.
Meittinien, J. K. (1975). The Accumulation and Excretion of Heavy Metals in Aquatic Environment, Peter A. (ed) Krenkal Perganon Press; Pp: 155.
National Population Commission. 2006. Census Reports, In: Census De Facto, Vital Statistical Unit, Gidan Madara, Maiduguri, Nigeria.
National Institution Occup. Safety and Health. 1976. NIOSH “Criteria for Recommended Standard Occupational Exposure to Cadmium” H. E. W. Publication Co. (NIOSH), pp. 76–192.
Okoronkwo; N, Igwe; J. C, and Onwuchelcua; E. C. 2005. Risk and Health Implication of Polluted Soil for Crop Production, American Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 4, No. B, pp. 1521–1524.
Qais Abdullah Nogaim, Mohammed Mukarem, Mosa Alwah and Mukhtar Atef. 2012. Survey of Some Heavy Metals in Yemeni Vegetables, Merit Research Journal of Food Science and Technology, Volume 1 (3) Pp: 036–42.
Retallack, G. J. 2006. Soils of the Past, In: An Introduction to Peleopedology, 2nd edition, John Willey and Sons Publishing Company, USA, pp: 207.
Stroud, K. A and Booth, D. J. “Statistical Package”, In: Engineering Mathematics WWW.Palgrave.Com/Stroud, Palgrave. GB, London, 5th Edition; Pp: 1130–1139. 2001.
Watt, J., Thornton, I., and Cotter, Howells J. 1994. Physical Evidence Suggesting the Transfer of Soil Lead (Pb) into Young Children via Hand to Mouth Activity. Appl. Geochem. (2): 269–272; Pp: 15.