Microbial Estimation and Characterization of Wastewater and Sludge in Awka Metropolis, Nigeria
International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy
Volume 5, Issue 6-1, December 2017, Pages: 23-32
Received: Mar. 23, 2017;
Accepted: Mar. 24, 2017;
Published: Aug. 21, 2017
Views 1539 Downloads 36
Bassey Effiong Edet, Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewery, Nnamdi Azikwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Gwana Adamu Mohammed, Laboratory Unit, Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, North – Eastern Nigeria
Buhari Bagudu Yawuri, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria
Alhaji Bashir Mohammed, Department of Basic Sciences and Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, North, Eastern Nigeria
Abubakar Musa, Department of Basic Sciences and Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, North, Eastern Nigeria
Abba Mala Galtimari, Department of General Studies, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, North – Eastern Nigeria
Hauwa Lawan Badawi, Heritage Unit, Department of Heritage and Monument Sites, National Commission for Museums and Monuments, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Mustapha Ahmadu, Department of Remedial Sciences, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, North – Eastern Nigeria
Fanna Ali Garra, Laboratory Unit, Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, North – Eastern Nigeria
This study focuses on the estimation and characterization of microorganisms isolated from wastewater and sludge in Awka metropolis, Nigeria. The samples were collected randomly from four (A, B, C and D) respective areas, analyzed microbiologically by homogenizing the samples under aseptic conditions to obtain a homogenous mixture, the isolation techniques used was pour plate methods as described by Cheesbrough, (2010); Joanne et al, (2011); APHA, (1989). The samples were diluted serially, inoculated on to MacConkey agar and Sabouraud Dextrose agar media each and microorganisms were isolated; wastewater had a range from 44 to 100 colonies and total of 284 (71 ± 24.30), CFU / ml (10-4) of 1.0 × 107 to 8.0 × 106 with total count of 19.4 (4.85 ± 2.96) × 106, while sludge was ranges from 60 to 120 colonies with a total of 358 (89.5 ± 29), CFU / ml (10-4) ranged from 1.0 × 107 to 7.0 × 106 with total count of 15.2 (3.8 ± 3.1) × 106. The colony and the morphology of the isolates were recorded, the bacterial isolates were characterized by motility tests, Gram staining and identified by biochemical tests. The fungal isolates were microscopically examined using a wet mount procedure. From the results obtained 8 bacterial and 7 fungal isolates were identified from both the wastewater and the sludge; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Micrococcus leteus, Enterococcus faecalis, Serratia mercescens and Yersinia enterocolitica. Acrophialophora fusispora, Epicoccum Purpurascens, Rhizopus microsporus, Exophiala spinifera, Cladosporium cladosporiodes, Aspergillus niger and Phaeoacremonium parasiticum. Results also showed that staphylococcus aureus have the highest percentage of occurrence in wastewater, while in sludge Micrococcus species have the highest percentage of occurrence.
Bassey Effiong Edet,
Gwana Adamu Mohammed,
Buhari Bagudu Yawuri,
Alhaji Bashir Mohammed,
Abba Mala Galtimari,
Hauwa Lawan Badawi,
Fanna Ali Garra,
Microbial Estimation and Characterization of Wastewater and Sludge in Awka Metropolis, Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy. Special Issue:The Role of SLT: Environmental Impact Assessment And Statement Concept.
Vol. 5, No. 6-1,
2017, pp. 23-32.
Abbaszadegan, M., Hasan, M. N., Gerba, C. P., Roessler, B. R., Wilson, R., Kuennen, and E. Van Dellen. “The disinfection efficacy of a point-of-use water treatment system against bacterial, viral and protozoan waterborne pathogens”, Water Research, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2000; pp: 574-582.
Abu-Ashour, J., Joy, M. H. Lee, H. R., Whiteley, and S. Zelin. “Transport of microorganisms through soil”, Water, Air and Soil Pollution, Vol. 75, No. 9, 2004; pp: 141-158.
Al-A'ama, M. S., and Nakhla G. F. “Wastewater reuse in Jubail, Saudi Arabia”, Water Research, Vol. 29, No. 6, 2005; pp: 1579 - 1584.
Anderson, J. M. “Current water recycling initiatives in Australia: scenarios for the 21st century”, Water Science and Technology, Vol. 33, Nol. 5, 2006; pp: 37-43.
APHA. (1989) “Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater”, Port City 2nd edition, Press, Baltimore, 1989; pp: 27-44.
Armon, R., and Kott, Y. “Distribution comparison between coliphages and phages of anaerobic bacteria (Bacteroides fragilis) in water sources, and their reliability as fecal pollution indicators in drinking water”, Water Science and Technology, Vol. 31, No. 17, 2003; pp: 215-222.
Asano, T., and Levine, A. C. “Wastewater reclamation, recycling and reuse: Past, present and future”, Water Science and Technology, Vol. 33, No. 5, 2000; pp: 1-14.
Ashbolt, N. J., Ball, A., Dorsch, M. C., Turner, P., Cox, A., Chapman, and Kirov., M. N. “The identification and human health significance of environmental aeromonads”, Water Science and Technology, Vol. 31, No. 23, 2005; pp: 263-270.
Aulicino, F. A., Mastrantonio, A., Orsini, P., Bellucci, C., Muscillo, M., and Larosa, G. “Enteric viruses in a wastewater treatment plant in Rome”, Water, Air and Soil Pollution, Vol. 91, No. 4, 2001; pp: 327 - 334.
Ayers, R. M., Stott, R., Mara, D. D., and Lee, D. L. “Wastewater reuse in agriculture and the risk of intestinal nematode infection”, Parasitology Today, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2002; pp: 32-35.
Bahlaoui, M. A., Baleux, B., and Troussellier, M. “Dynamics of pollution- indicator and pathogenic bacteria in high-rate oxidation wastewater treatment ponds”, Water Research, Vol. 31, No. 42, 1997; pp: 630–638.
Bahri, A., and Brissaud, F. “Wastewater reuse in Tunisia: Assessing a national policy”, Water Science and Technology, Vol. 33, No. 9, 1996; pp: 87-94.
Baker, K. H., and Bovard, D. S. “Detection and occurrence of indicator organisms and pathogens”, Water Environment Research, Vol. 68, No. 6, 1996; pp: 406-416.
Bales, R. C., Hinkle, S. R., Kroeger, T. W. and Stocking, K. “Bacteriophage adsorption during transport through porous media: Chemical perturbations and reversibility”, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1999; pp: 2088-2095.
Basher, A., and Shahalam, M. “Wastewater effluent vs. safety in its reuse: State - of – the – art”, The Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 32, No. 7, 2007; pp: 35-42.
Bitton, G., Koopman, B., and Jung, K. “An assay for the enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in water and wastewater”, Water Environment Research, Vol. 67, No. 5, 1995; pp: 906-909.
Bryan, F. L. “Diseases transmitted by foods contaminated by wastewater”, Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 40, No. 43, 2007; pp: 45-59.
Capuano, R. M., Siringan, M. A., Jan, R. Z., and Jurtshuk, P. “Enhanced activity of oligotrophic endogenous bacteria in clay - rich sediments by nutrient injection”, Geomicrobiology Journal, Vol. 13, No. 32, 2000; pp: 165-179.
Carducci, A., Arrighi, S., and Ruschi, A. 1999 “Detection of coliphages and enteroviruses in sewage and aerosol from an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant”. Letters in Applied Microbiology. Vol. 19, No. 21, 1999, pp: 207-209.
Cheesbrough, C. “Microbiological Techniques”, In: District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, Second Edition Update, Part 1, Cambridge University Press Publication, GB, 2010.
Gwana, A. M., Bassey, E. E., Buhari, B. Y., Mala, A. M., Umaru, B. W., Mohammed, L. S., Shettima, U. K., Halima, M. B. “Role of Slt: Environmental Impact Assessments and Statements Concept. International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy, Special Issue: The role of SLT: Environmental Impact Assessment and Statement Concept”, Vol. 5, No. 6 - 1, 2017; pp. 1–7.
Gwana, A. M, Umaru, B. W., Halima, M. B., Wanas, L. N. “Physico – Chemical Water Quality Analysis of Lake Alau, North – Eastern Nigeria”, Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2017; pp: 14–22.
Joanne, M. W., Linda, M. S. and Christopher, J. W. “Clinical Microbiology and Immunology”, In: Prescott’s Microbiology, 8th Edition, Mc Grow – Hill Companies, New York, USA, 2011; pp: 850–871.
Savichtcheva, O. and Okabe, S. “Alternative indicators of fecal pollution: Relations with pathogens and conventional indicators, current methodologies for direct pathogen monitoring and future application perspectives”, Water Research, Vol. 40, No. 8, 2006; pp: 2463-2476.
Steel, R. G. D and Torrie, J. K. “Analysis of Variance”, In: Principles and Procedures of Statistics, Mc Grow Hill Book Company Incorporation, USA, 2nd Edition, 1980; pp: 125–130.
Stroud, K. A and Booth, D. J. “Statistical Package”, In: Engineering Mathematics WWW.Palgrave.Com/Stroud, Palgrave. GB, London, 5th Edition, 1980; Pp: 1130–1139.
Umaru, B. W., Gwana, A. M., Wanas, L. N., Halima, M. B. “Assessments of Biological Water Quality and Condition Factor of Clarias gariepinus in Lake Alau, North – Eastern Nigeria”, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2016; pp: 1–10.
Wadhwa, S. G., Khaled, G. H., and Edberg, S. C. “Comparative Microbial Character of Consumed Food and Drinking Water”, Critical Reviews in Microbiology, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2002; pp: 249-279.
Welshimer, H. J. “Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in soil”, Journal of Bacteriology, Vol. 80, 1960; pp: 316-320 (As cited by Beuchat, (1996);
Smith, J. L. and Buchanan, R. L. (1992). “Shigella, In: Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods” (Edited by Vanderzant, C. & Splittstoesser, D. F.). Pp. 423-431. Washington DC: American Public Health Association.