Survey and Assessment of the Human Activities in Chingurmi Duguma Sector of Chad Basin National Park, North – Eastern Nigeria
International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy
Volume 5, Issue 6-1, December 2017, Pages: 50-70
Received: Oct. 28, 2017; Accepted: Oct. 30, 2017; Published: Nov. 24, 2017
Views 1169      Downloads 25
Authors
Mohammed Lawan Shettima, Department of Forestry Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Gwana Adamu Mohammed, Laboratory Unit, Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Mohammed Waziri, Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Management, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Mu’azu Abdullahi Kofan Na’isa, Department of Planning, Research and Development, Nigerian Institute of Science Laboratory Technology, Ibadan, Nigeria
Abubakar Aliyu, Department of Forestry Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Hauwa Lawan Badawi, Heritage Unit, Department of Heritage and Monument Sites, National Commission for Museums and Monuments, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Bassey Effiong Edet, Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewery, Nnamdi Azikwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Malah Alhaji Musa, Department of Basic Science and Technology, Mohamet Lawan College of Agriculture, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
This study was conducted on the survey and assessment of the human activities in Chingurmi Duguma sector of Chad Basin National Park, north – eastern Nigeria. Primary and secondary sources of information were used. Data were collected by using compound structured open and ended questionnaires, served in 12 villages’ communities on 10 selected individuals in each village, totaling 120 respondents and a separate questionnaire on 15 park officials. The data collected were analysed statistically. Eight well known national parks located within the eight states in Nigeria, their locations, area land marks with percentage of each park occupied were stated. Surveyed and identified different 15 fauna and 26 Flora species at interval of every 5 km from point A to E in the sector. 69% males and 31% females of the respondents were involved, 41 above years old were 44 the highest (37%), and least were 31 – 35 and 36 – 40 years old (18%) each involved actively in human activities, 80% were enlightened on the relevance of the park to the surrounding village communities, 31% were educated on the risk of farming in the park, 47% of the respondents were 6 – 10 years leaving in surrounding the park, relationship between the park officials and the communities were 67%, 33% benefit from the resources of the sector, 20% for communication gab, 75% said wildlife (animals) appears in the night, 33% for day time. 50% usually go into the park for grazing/ poaching and hunting, 25%t for hunting of birds, 23% agreed on felling trees, 100% of park officials agreed to have seen people tempering with the resources in the park, and 42% agreed on poaching and hunting of animals resources in the Chingurmi Duguma sector of the park. Findings reveal that the park is being tempered with and that the human activities are on the high side. It is advised that the government should come to its aid.
Keywords
Fauna, Flora, Chingurmi – Duguma, Conservation, Chad Basin, Deforestation, Desertification, National Park
To cite this article
Mohammed Lawan Shettima, Gwana Adamu Mohammed, Mohammed Waziri, Mu’azu Abdullahi Kofan Na’isa, Abubakar Aliyu, Hauwa Lawan Badawi, Bassey Effiong Edet, Malah Alhaji Musa, Survey and Assessment of the Human Activities in Chingurmi Duguma Sector of Chad Basin National Park, North – Eastern Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy. Special Issue:The Role of SLT: Environmental Impact Assessment And Statement Concept. Vol. 5, No. 6-1, 2017, pp. 50-70. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepp.s.2017050601.17
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Gwana A. M, Bassey E. E, Bagudu B. Y, Malah A. M, Wakil U. B, Shettima M. L, Shettima U. K, Halima M. B. Role of Slt: Environmental Impact Assessments and Statements Concept. International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy. Special Issue: The Role of SLT: Environmental Impact Assessment and Statement Concept. Vol. 5, No. 6-1, 2017a, pp. 1–7. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepp.s.2017050601.11.
[2]
Mohammed L. S, Gwana A. M, Badawi H. L, Mu’azu A. K, Bassey E. E, Marte M. L, Shettima U. K, Abubakar A. Comparative Techniques of Raising Seedlings of Acacia seyal in the Arid Zone of Borno State, North - Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy. Special Issue: The Role of SLT: Environmental Impact Assessment And Statement Concept. In Press, 2017, pp. 1 - 10, doi: 10.11648/j.2017a.
[3]
Munn, R. E. “Environmental Impact Assessment”, Scope 5, second edition, Toronto, pp. 3 – 5, October, 1977.
[4]
Botkin, D. B. and Keller, E. A. “Environmental Science, Earth as living Planet”, Second Edition, pp. 270 - 273. 1997.
[5]
Augustine, U. E. “Critical Sites for Biodiversity Conservation in Nigeria” published by Conservation Foundation (NF), pp. 3-16. 2002.
[6]
Ayuba, H. K. “Environmental Science” An Introductory Text, Puplished in Nigeria, Apani Publications, a Division of Apani Business and Research Consult, No. 27, Bagaruwa Road, Costain, Kaduna, Nigeria, pp. 2-75. 2005.
[7]
International Union for conservation of nature (IUCN). “Criteria for National Parks”, International Commission on National Parks, BANFF, Canada, pp. 1, 1972.
[8]
World Bird Watches (WBW). “Beyond the Summit”, Bird Life, UK, Vol. 24 No. September 2002.
[9]
World Resources Institute (WRI). United Nation Environmental Programmes (UNEP) and United Nation Development Programmes (UNDP), 1992.
[10]
Abong, A. “Adopting Support Zone Development Programmes as Strategy for Management Development of National Park”, A Case Study of Cross River National Park, Nigeria National Park, Bulletin No. 3, pp. 5-10. 1996.
[11]
Olatoke, R. A. “Thrills and Dangers of Patrols at Night”, A Park Warden Experiences, in Kainji Lake National Park, PP. 4. 1996.
[12]
Ayuba, H. K., Maryah, U. M. and Gwary, D. M. “Climate Change Impact on Plant Species, Composition in Six Semi-Arid Rangelands of North –Eastern Nigeria”, Workshop Paper, AIACC Stakeholders Workshop on Climate Change, Crop Yield and Food Security in 21st Century, Nigeria, OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, September 20th–21st, 2004.
[13]
Daura, M. M. “The physical Environment and development”. A study of Borno Region In: Ogunnika O., Irefen D., Daura M. M., and Balami D. (Eds.). “Environment and Development Issues in Sub - Saharan Africa”, Faculty of Social and Management Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria, Seminar Series Vol. 1, pp. 35–47. 2001.
[14]
Nigeria National Park Service (NNPS). “The Magazine of Nigeria National Park” National Management to Wear a Human Face-Minister, Volume, No. 2, July 24th, 1996, pp. 5., 1996.
[15]
Ahmed, M. I. C. “Introduction to Environmental Problems and Management”, Puplished in Nigeria by Wadallah Environmental Consults (WADEC) ISBN 97836 411-07. 2002.
[16]
United Nation Environment and Programmes (UNEP). “The Nigeria Situation United Nation World Conference on Desertification Region Preparatory Meeting for Sub–Saharan Africa”, Nairobi, Kenya. 1997.
[17]
Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN). The Establishment of National Parks in Nigeria, on Enactment Decree No. 22 August, 1991.
[18]
Enger, E. D. and Smith B. F. “Environmental Science”, a Study of Interrelationships, Published by McGraw-Hill, a Business Unit of the McGraw–Hills Companies Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY10020, pp. 16-269. 2006.
[19]
Ogunnika O., Irefen D., Daura M. M., and Balami D. (Eds.). “Environment and Development Issues in Sub-Saharan Africa”, Faculty of Social and Management Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria, Seminar Series, Vol. 1, pp. 35–47. 2001.
[20]
Bowonder, B. “Deforestation in developing countries”, J. Environmental System, 171192., pp. 15, 1986.
[21]
Frost, P. Menaut J. Medina E. Solbring O. T. Swift, M. and Walker B. “Response of Savanna to Stress and Disturbance”, a Proposal for Collaborative Programmes of Research, pp. 16–269. 1985.
[22]
Mamza, J. U. “The Ostrich (Struthio camelus) and its Attributes”, A Case Study of Chad Basin National Park, Nigeria. Published by Nigerian National Park Service, 1996.
[23]
Maria, J. R. T. “Examining the Potentials of the Zaha Mafa Drainage Basin for Sustainable Agriculture in Gwoza, Borno State, Nigeria”, in (M. Sc. Dissertation Based Seminar Paper), 2005.
[24]
Spore Magazine. “Park and Natural Reserves”, Driving Force of Ecotourism, Monthly Bulletin of Scientific and Technical Information Concerning Rural and Agricultural Development, published by Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (CTA), Bulletin of CTA No. 62 of April, 1996.
[25]
Adeyanju, D. “Poaching”, A Threat to Conservation Area in Nigeria Parks, the Magazine of the Nigerian National Parks (NNPS), Bulletin No. 3. pp. 6-8. 1999.
[26]
Adeola, M. O. “Illegal Grazing in Nigeria National Park” A Case Study of Old Oyo, Nigerian National Park Service, Bulletin No. 2, pp. 3–10. 1996.
[27]
Marguba, L. G. “Nigeria National Parks, their Significance and Potentials to Nation” In: the Magazine of the Nigeria National Parks Service, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 5. 1996.
[28]
International Union for the Conversation of Nature (IUCNN). “National Parks and Conservation”, Magazine, Vol. 46. pp. 1. 1969.
[29]
Faniran, A. “River Basin and Development Planning in West Africa”, West Africa Regional Conference, Common-Wealth Geographical Bur, Accra, Sept. 1970.
[30]
Faniran, A. “Drainage Basin Development and Political Boundaries in Africa”, Nigeria Journal of Economic and Social Studies, Vol. 163, pp. 10. 1975.
[31]
Ayoade, J. O. and Oyebande, B. L. “Water Resources”, In: Oguntoyinbo, T. S., Areola, O. And Fulani, M. (eds.) “A Geography of Nigerian Development”, Heinemann Educational Book Nigeria Ltd; Ibadan, pp. 11-87. 1975.
[32]
Chad Basin National Park (CBNP). ”Conservation Unit”, Administrative Head Office, P. M. B. 1026, Biu Road, Maiduguri, Borno State of Nigeria. 2004.
[33]
Stroud, K. A and Booth, D. J. “Statistical Package”, In: Engineering Mathematics WWW.Palgrave.Com / Stroud, Palgrave. GB, London, 5th Edition; pp: 1130–1139. 2001.
[34]
Udo, E. O. “The Role of Nigeria Forest in the Nutrition of the People Implication on Biodiversity Conservation”, Proceeding Annual Conference of Forestry Association of Nigeria, pp. 3–7. 1999.
[35]
Milligan, K. Von, Kaufman R. and Ajayi S. S. “The Abundance Distribution and Production of Large Herbivores”, pp. 83. 1982.
[36]
Pickering, K. T and Lewis A. O. “Introduction to Global Environment Issues”, pp. 252-276. 1990.
[37]
National Action Programmes (NAP). “Towards the Implementation of the United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification and Mitigate, effect of Drought in the country Nigeria”, Nigerian National Park News (NNPN, 2004) Vol. 1 issue No. 1 P. 3 pp. 10. 2000.
[38]
Mohammed, L. S, Gwana, A. M, Hauwa, L. B, Mu’azu, A. K, Bassey, E. E, Mohammed, L. M, Shettima, U. K, Abubakar, A. Comparative Techniques of Raising Seedlings of Acacia seyal in the Arid Zone of Borno State, North – Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy, Special Issue: The Role of SLT: Environmental Impact Assessment And Statement Concept. Vol. 5, No. 6- 1, 2017b, pp. 40-49. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepp.s.2017050601.16
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186