The Impacts and Implications of Anthropogenic Forces on the Unstable Geologic Platform in Parts of Anambra and Imo States Southeastern, Nigeria
International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy
Volume 4, Issue 4, July 2016, Pages: 104-110
Received: Jun. 26, 2016;
Accepted: Jul. 5, 2016;
Published: Jul. 21, 2016
Views 4339 Downloads 112
Egboka Boniface Chukwuka, Department of Geological Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Okoyeh Elizabeth Ifeyinwa, Department of Geological Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Anthropogenic activities have exacerbated the incidences of floods, soil and gully erosion and landslides in parts of southeastern states of Anambra and Imo, Nigeria. Intense urbanization, deforestation, agricultural, commercial/industrial activities has extensively-denudated and elluviated the total environment. The variations in climatic condition also have associated implications. The rainy season registers an average annual rainfall of 2000 mm. The Geology comprises an unstable platform of a regional escarpment/cuesta subtended by sandy, highly-fractured and faulted Nanka sands/Ameki Formation. The underlying unstable geology facilitates the development of gullies with depth ranging from 2 m to over 80 m. The calculated rate of soil removal from the gully prone areas is about 9.20 to 10.16 ton/ha/yr. The significant cuesta of the area with steep scarp slope and gentle dip slope forms both surface and groundwater divide that also facilitates gully and landslide developments. The underlying geologic sandy structure is quite porous and permeable with huge aquiferous horizons of high pore-water pressures and effective stress. The problems of laissez faire attitude and poor understanding of the destructive implications of the unstable regional geologic platform result in the failure of measures to prevent myriads of environmental destructions and economic wastes.
Egboka Boniface Chukwuka,
Okoyeh Elizabeth Ifeyinwa,
The Impacts and Implications of Anthropogenic Forces on the Unstable Geologic Platform in Parts of Anambra and Imo States Southeastern, Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy.
Vol. 4, No. 4,
2016, pp. 104-110.
Imasuen, O. I., Omali, A. O. and Ibrahim, I., 2011. Assessment of environment impacts of remedies for gully erodion in Ankpa metropolis and environs, Kogi State, Nigeria. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 2 (5) pp 372-384.
Eswaran, H., R. Lal and P. F. Reich. 2001. Land degradation: an overview. In. Bridges, E. M. et al. (eds.) Responses to Land Degradation. Proc. 2nd. Int. Conf. Land Degradation and Desertification, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Oxford Press, New Delhi, India.
Montgomery, D. R. (2007). "Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 104: 13268–13272. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0611508104.
Obidinma C. Ezezika and Olorunfemi Adetona, 2011. Resolving the gully erosion problem in Southeastern Nigeria: Innovation through public awareness and community-based approaches. J. Soil Sci. Environ. Manage pp 286-291.
Okoro, E. I., Akpan, A. E., Egboka, B. C. E. and Odoh, B. I.: Dimensional Analysis and Characterization of the Gully Systems in parts of Southeastern Nigeria, In: Water: Ecological Disasters and Sustainable Development (Monograph), edited by: Egboka, B. C. E. and Odoh, B. I. (eds.), LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, UK, USA, 237-246), 2011.
Egboka, B. C. E., 1993. The raging war, flood, erosion and gully ravage-Anambra State. Published by Government of Anambra State, Nigeria. 223 pp.
Igbokwe, J. I., Akinyede, J. O. B., Dang, B. T., Alaga, T. M. N., Ono, M. N., Nnodu, V. C. and Anike, L. O. 2008: Mapping and Monitoring of the Impact of Gully Erosion in Southeastern Nigeria with Satellite Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System, The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XXXVII (B 8), 865-871, 2008.
Short, K. C., and A. J. Stauble, 1967. Outline of Geology of Niger Delta. American Association Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 51. pp. 761-779.
Murat, R. C., 1970. Stratigraphy and Paleogeography of the Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary in Southern Nigeria. African Geology, University of Ibadan Press, pp. 635-648.
Kogbe, C. A.: Paleogeographic history of Nigeria from Albian times. In: Geology of Nigeria, edited by: Kogbe, C. A., Elizabethan Publishing Co., Ibadan, Nigeria, 237-252, 1976.
Reyment, R. A.: Aspects of the Geology of Nigeria, University of Ibadan Press, Nigeria, 1965.
Nwajide, S. O. 2013. Geology of Nigeria’s Sedimentary Basins. CSS bookshops Lagos pp 503-505.
Okoyeh, E. I., Akpan, A. E., Egboka, B. C. E. and Okeke, H. 2014. An Assessment of the Infleuence of Surface and Subsurface water level Dynamics in the Development of Gully in Anambra State Southeastern, Nigeria Vol. 18 (4) pp 1-24
Egboka, B. C. E. and Okpoko, E. I. 1984. Gully erosion in the Agulu-Nanka region of Anambra State, Nigeria. In: Challenges in African Hydrolo and Water Resources, Proceeding of Harare Symposium, International Association of Hydrogeologists Society Publication No. 144 pp 335-347.
Egboka, B. C. E., Nwankwor, G. I. and Orajaka, I. P.: Implications of Palaeo- and Neotectonics in Gully Erosion-Prone Areas of Southeastern Nigeria, Natural Hazards, 3, 219-231, 1990.
Burke, K.: Neogene and Quaternary Tectonics of Nigeria. In: Geology of Nigeria, edited by: Kogbe, C. A., Elizabethan Publishing Co., Ibadan, Nigeria, 363-369, 1969.
Nwajide, C. S. 1979: A Lithostratigraphic Analysis of the Nanka Sands, Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology vol. 16 p 104-109.
Foster, R. J.: General Geology, C. E. Merrill Publ. Co., 1973.
Okagbue, C. O. and Uma, K. O.: Performance of gully erosion control measures in southeastern Nigeria, IAHS Publication, 167, 163–172, 1987.