Eco-hydrobiology with Special Reference to Entamofauna and Avifaunal Diversity of Sothuparai Reservoir, Periyakulam, Theni District, Tamilnadu, India
Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2016, Pages: 26-34
Received: May 22, 2016; Published: May 23, 2016
Views 4340      Downloads 118
Medona Mary Robert Samuel, Research Centre of Zoology, Jayaraj Annapackiam College for Women, Periyakulam, Tamilnadu, India
Nirmala Thivyanathan, Research Centre of Zoology, Jayaraj Annapackiam College for Women, Periyakulam, Tamilnadu, India
Delphine Rose Mariya Rajendran, Research Centre of Zoology, Jayaraj Annapackiam College for Women, Periyakulam, Tamilnadu, India
Article Tools
Follow on us
Sothuparai reservoir is located at the foothills of the Western Ghats. The water quality parameters such as water temperature, PH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, electrical conductivity, magnesium, calcium and chloride were analyzed and are within the permissible limits and can be used for irrigation and domestic purpose. A total of 2,670 individuals of aquatic entamofauna were represented by 43 genera categorized under 32 families and 9 orders during the study period. The diversity, evenness and the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera families were higher in upperstream than in downstream. Ephemeropteran was most diverse and its presence is an indicative of good water quality. The abundance of organic pollution tolerant Baetis species was found in downstream. To compare with the upperstream has the better water quality than the downstream of the reservoir. This may be due to the interruptions by anthropogenic activities in the downstream. The diversity and structure of bird communities is essential to delineate the importance of regional or local landscapes for avian conservation. Total count method was used and a total of 1,348 individuals belonging to 38 species of 25 families were observed in Sothuparai reservoir. Out of 25 Families, Muscicapidae dominated with 4 species and Culicidae with 3 species. Thus the present investigation depicts that the Sothuparai reservoir supports variety of bird’s population and aquatic insect communities. Regular monitoring of the reservoir using aquatic insects and birds as indicators will facilitate better conservation and management.
Water Quality Parameters, Diversity of Aquatic Insects & Birds, Sothuparai Reservoir, Bio Indicator
To cite this article
Medona Mary Robert Samuel, Nirmala Thivyanathan, Delphine Rose Mariya Rajendran, Eco-hydrobiology with Special Reference to Entamofauna and Avifaunal Diversity of Sothuparai Reservoir, Periyakulam, Theni District, Tamilnadu, India, Hydrology. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2016, pp. 26-34. doi: 10.11648/j.hyd.20160403.11
R. M Bhardwaj, water quality in India- Achievements and Constraints. In: Intermit. Work season on water staticstics, Vienna, 2005, June 20-22.
R. G. Wetzel, Limnology W. B. Soundins Company, Philadlphia, 1975, pp. 743.
Boyd, C. E. “Water quality: An Introduction “Springer, (2000).
Y. Yin, Y. Zhang, X. Liu G. Zhu, B. Quin, Z. Sih, L. Feng. “Hydrobiologia”, 2002, pp. 665, 129.
M. Jhon Mohammed, P. V. Krishna, O. A. Lamna and Shabbarkhan. “Analysis of water quality using limnobiology status of Wyra Resorvoir, Khammam District, Telungana, India”. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science, 2015, 4, 2, pp. 880-895.
B. Simpi, Hiremath S. M, Murthy K. N. S, K. N Chandrashekareppa A. N. and Puttiah E. T “Analysis of water quality using physicochemical parameters, Hosahallic Tank in Shimoga, District”, Karnataka, India, Global Journals Inc., USA, 2011, 11, 3.
J. Cairns and K. Dicson. “A Simple Method for Biological Assessment of the Effect of waste discharge on the aquatic bottom dwelling organism”. J. Wat. Pollu. Control, 1971, pp. 775.
K. Venkatesharaju, P. Ravikumar, R. K. Somashehar, K. K. Prakash “Physico Chemical and Bacteriological investigation on the river Cauvery of kollegal stretch in Karnatka, Journal of Sci. Eng. and Technology, 2010, 6, 1, pp. 50-59.
V. Patel, P. Parikh. “Assessment of Soil Quality Parameters 7 Heavy Metal Load in Mini River Basin, Vadodara”, Int. Jour. of env. Sci., 2012, Vol. 3. No. 1.
Bios, “Freshwater of India, Proc.” 2009.
K. Maya, S. I. Ramya, B. Baburaj, I. Lakshmi, V. R. Nisha J. Sangeetha, D. Pamalal. “International Journal of Agr. Science, 2013, pp. 363-372.
C. Pullugandi. “Anlysis of water quality parameters in Vembakottai Water Reservoir, Virudunagar District, Tamilnadu” A report- Research Journal of Recent Science, 2014, Vol. 3, pp. 242-247.
N. G. Faith “Water quality trends in the Rerste River, Western Cape”, A mini thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Magister, Scientiae, Integrated water Resource Management of western cape. 1990-2005, 41.
R. M. Garrels, F. T. Mackenzie and C. Hunt “Chemical cycle & the global environment”, William Kaufman, New York, 1975, pp. 260.
N. Raj and P. A. Azeez. “Spatial & temporal variation in surface water chemistry of a tropical river, the river Bharathapuzha, India current science”, 2009, vol. 96, 2.
D. Kamal A. N. Khan, M. A. Rahaman, & F. Ahamed. “Study on the Physico Chemical properties of water of Mouri River, Khulna, Bangladesh. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science”, 2007 10, 5 pp. 710-717.
AmalKumar Patra, Suman Sngupta and Tanmay Ddatta “Physico-chemical properties and ichthyofauna diversity in Karala river, a tributary of Teesta River at Jalpaiguri District of West Bengal, India.” International Journal of applied biology and pharmaceutical technology, 2011, Vol 2 pp. 47-58.
J. R. Karr, J. D. Allen and A. C. Benke. “River conservation in the united states and Cannada. In P. J. Boon, B. R. Davies, G. R. Petts (eds) Global perspectives on River conservation Science Policy and Practice, 2000.
B. Regina, B. Nabi. “Physico-chemical spectrum of the Bhavans river water collected from the Kalingaryan dam, Tamilnadu”. Indian J. Enviro. Ecoplan, 2003, 2, 9, pp. 16-21.
V. Mary Kensa and S. Jayakavitha “Studies on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Water Samples of Putheri Area, Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu”. EM International Poll Res., 2013,32,1, pp. 83-86.
R. W. Pennak, “Limnological variables in a Colorado mountain stream. Freshwater Biology, 4, 1974, pp. 343–368.
D. M. Rosenberg and V. H. Resh, Freshwater biomonitoring and benthic invertebreates, Chapman and Hall, Newyork, 1983, pp. 448.
M. Duran and M. Suicmez, “Utilization of both benthic macro invertebrates and physic chemical parameters for evaluating water quality of the strwam Cekerek J. Environ. Biol., 28, 2007, pp. 231–236.
N. A. Nagendran, “Stream Characteristics and biomonitoring of Perumal Patha Odai, Karanthamalai, TamilNadu. Ecol. Env & Cons. 2007,13,1, pp. 57—62.
T R. New,. “Insect Conservation”, Dr. W. Junk Publish¬ers, Dordrecht, Netherlands. 1984, pp. 188-198.
H. V. Daly, General classified key to the orders of aquatic and semi aquatic insects In: A introduction to the aquatic insects of North America (Eds. Merrit R. W. and Cummins, K. W) Kendall Hunt, Iowa, USA, 1996, pp. 101-112.
A. Wahizatul, S. H. Luna, A. Ahamed, “Composition and Distribution of Aquatic Insect Communities in Relation to Water Quality in Two Freshwater Streams of Hulu Terengganu”, Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, 2011. 6, 1.
Muhammad Nawaz Rajpar and Mohamed Zakaria “Bird Species Abundance and their Correlationship with Microclimate and Habitat Variables at Natural Wetland Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia” International Journal of Zoology, Volume1, 2011.
V. S Vijayan Keoladoo National Park ecology study Final report Journal of Bombay Natural History Soc. 1991, Pp. 337.
Cody, “Interspecific terrotially among having birds Species” Condor 70(3) 1968, pp. 210-271.
R. Greenberg “Insectivorous Migratory Birds in Trophical Biosystems the Breeding Currency Hypothesis Journal of Avian biology” 1995, 26, 3, pp. 260-264.
L. Cheng, Marine Insects. American Elsevier Publ. co. Newyork, 1976.
APHA “Standard methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. American Public Heath Association” 21st End., Washington, D. C., 2005.
R. W. Merrit and K. W Cummins,. “An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America” (2nd Edn. Kendall. Hunt Publication Company, Dubuque, Iowa, 1988, pp.722.
D. Dudgeon, In tropical Asian streams – Zoorenthos, Ecology and Consolation, Hong Kon University Press, Hong Kong., 1999, pp. 82.
K. A. Subramanian, and K. G. Sivaramakrishnan, “Aquatic insects of India: A Field Guide”, 2007.
J. Howes, and D. Bakewell, Shorebird Studies Manual. AWB Publication No. 55. Kuala Lumpur, 1989.
C. E. Shannon and W. Weiner “The Mathematical Theory of Communication”. University llinois Press, Urbana, 1949.
A. K. De, “Environmental Chemistry” 4th Edn., New Age International Publication, New Delhi, 2002, pp 231-232.
P. Shivashankar, G. V. Venkataramana, “Seasonal Fluctuations of Water Quality Parameters in Selected Points of Bhadra River, Karnataka, India” International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, 2015, Vol. 4. Pp. 219-224.
N. PramodKamble, B. Viswas Gaikwad and R, Shashikant Kuchekar “Monitoring of Physicochemical Parameters and Quality Assessment of Water from Bhandaradare Reservoir” Pelagia Research Library, 2011,2 4 pp. 229-234.
B. S. AshokKumar, V. D. Joshi, A. K. Sing and Amitabh Talwar. “Physical Chemical and Bacteriological Study of Water from River of Uttarakhand” J. Hum. Ecol, 2010, 32, 3, pp. 169-173.
J. Narayana, E. T. Puttain and D. Basavaraja “Water Quality Assessment of Water Quality Parameters of Reservoir Characteristics of Anjanapura Reservoir near Shikaripur District Shimoga, Karnataka”, J. Aqua. Bio. 2008, 23, pp. 59-63.
R. K. Garg, R. J. Rao, D. Ucchariya G. Shukla and D. N. Saksena, “Seasonal Variations in water quality an d pollution status of Kalpi River, Gwalior
A. K. Verma and D. N. Sakssena, “Assessment of Water Quality and Pollution Status of Kalpi River, Gwalior Madhya Pradesh, with special reference to Conservation and Management Plan,” Asian J. Exp. Biol. Sci. 2, 2010, 3,1, pp. 419-429.
BIS: IS 10500, Indian standards for Drinking Water, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India (2004).
ISI.1991 Indian Standards institution, Indian Standards Tolerance Limit for Inland Surface Water Subject to Pollution, second revision. 15: 2296.
A. G. Deviprasad, G. V. Venkataramana and Thomas, “Fish diversity and its conservation in major wetlands of Mysore”, J. Environ. Biol. 30 (5), 2009, pp. 713-718.
Smitha, D. Ajay and P. Shivasankar, “Physico chemical analysis of the freshwater at river Kapila, Nanjangudu industrial area, Mysore, India, J. Envi. Sc. 2, 8, 2013, pp. 59-65.
Amin Hossaini Motalagh, K. Navitha and P. Manikya Reddy, “Eclogical studies of Naccharam lake with reference to water quqlity”, Poll Res. 32 (4): 2013, pp. 829-832.
R. Medona Mary., T. Nirmala and M. R. Delphine Rose, Evaluation of Physical and Chemical characteristics of Water at Sothuparai reservoir, Theni District, Tamilnadu, India. International Research Journal of Environment Sciences, 2014, Vol. 3, 8, pp. 1-4.
R. Medona Mary, T. Nirmala, and M. R. Delphine Rose, “Diversity and Distribution of Aquatic Insects In Sothuparai Reservoir at Periyakulam, Theni District, Tamilnadu, India”. Int J Cur Res Rev, 2015, Vol 7, 9, pp. 10-15.
A. G. Jhingran and V. V. “General Guidelines and Planning Criteria for Small Reservoir Fisheries Management”, Proc. Nat. Workshop Reservoir Fish, 1990, pp.1-8.
R. N. Singhal, S. Jeet and R. W. Davies “The Physic-chemical Environment and the Plankton Managed Ponds in Hariyana, India”. Pro. Indian Accad. Sci. Anim. Sci., 1986, 95, 3, pp. 353.
S. Kalavathy, T. Sharma and P. S. Krimav., “Water Quality Index of River Cauvery in Trichy District, Tamilnadu”, Arch. Environ. Sci, 2011, 5, pp. 55-61.
B. R. Kiran, “Physicochemical Characteristics of Fish Ponds of Bhadra Project at Karnataka,” Rasayan J. Chem, 2010, 3, 4, pp. 671-676.
Cari-ann Hayer, M. Bejamin. Holocomb and Steven R. Chipps, Associations between Iron concentration and productivity in Montane streams of the Black Hills, SAouth Dakota” The Prraire Naturalist 45, 2013, pp. 68–76.
VinitKumar, Sandeep Arya, Anshu Dhahay Minakshi & Chanchal. “A Study on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Yamuna River around Hamirpur (UP)”, Bundelkhans Region central India, 2011.
S. K. Pawar and J. S. Pulle, “Studies on physic chemical parameters in Pethwadaj dam, Nanded District in Maharastra, India, “J. Aqua. Biol.20, 2, 2005, pp. 123-128.
M. Munawar “A Limnological Sudy of Fresh Water Ponds of Hyderabad, India”, The biotope. Hydrobiologia, 1970, 35, pp. 127-162.
J. S. Chandrasekhar, K. Lenin Babu and R. K. Somasekhar “Impact of Urbanization on Bellandur Lake, Bangalore-A Case Study”. J. Environ. Biol. 2003, 24, 3, pp. 223-227.
M. S. Sharma., N. Chisty., V. Sharma., H. Malara and R. Sharma,” Biodiversity of Zooplankton in Rajasthan Waters, Proceedings Taall” 2007: 12th World Lake Conference.
A. V. Rajasekar, A. Lingaiah S. Rao and R. S. Piska “The Studies on Water Quality Parameters of a Minor Reservoir, Nadergal, Rangareddy District, Andra Pradesh” J. Aqua. Biol., 2007, 221, pp. 118-122.
B. Jeemuta Vahana, P. Yadagiriri Swamy, Ravi Shankar Piska, Mohd Kaleem and Sharath Kumar, Poll. Res.32, 2, 2013, pp. 371- 374.
S. Vipul, B. K. Sharma, R. Sharma, M. S. Sharma, K. S. Gaur “A Report on the Freshwater Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchipoda) of South Rajasthan (India)” International Journal of Environmental Science, 2012, 3, 1, pp. 276-296.
M. S, Hujara, “Hydrobiological Studies on Some Water Reservoirs of Hatkanangale Tahsil (Maharastra)”, Thesis, submitted to the Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 2005.
P. O. Agbaire and C. G. OBI, “Seasonal Variations of some physic chemical propertiesof river Ethiope water in Abraka, Nigeria. J. of Applied Sci. Environ. And management 13, 1, 2009, pp. 55–57.
A. Mishra, Mukherjee, A. and Tripathi, B. D, seasonal and Temporal variation in physic chemical and Bacteriological characteristics of river Ganga in Varanasi. Int. J. Environ. Res. 3, 3, 2009, pp. 395–402.
Susmitha Gupta and Rupali Nazzary, “Aquatic insect community of lake, Phulabri anua in Cachar, Assam, J. Environ. Biol. 34, 2013, pp. 591-597.
T. H. K. Hoang, K. Lock, K. Chi Dang, N. De Pauw and P. L. M. Goethlin, “Spatial and temporal Patterns of macroinvertebrate communities in the Du River Basin in Northern Vietnam, J. fresh wat. Ecol., 25, 2010, pp. 637–647.
R. Kalaiarasi, “Compostion and Trophic categorization of aquatic insects and biomonitoring of selected streams of Southern Western Ghats” M. Phil. Dessertation, 2008.
S. Dinakaran and S. Anbalagan, “Anthropogenic impacts on aquatic insects in six streams and rivers of Southern western Gharts. Journal of Insect Science, 7, 2007, pp. 37-39.
U. Abhijna, G. Ratheesh, R. Bijukumar A,. Distribution and Diversity of aquatic insects of Vellayani Lake in Kerala. Journal of Environmental Biology, 34, 2013, pp.605-611.
K. J. Gaston, What is biodiversity? In biodiversity! A biology of number and difference Gaston (ed.) Blackwell Science, London, 2000, pp. 3-8.
K. Donar, R. Reddy and D. P. Deshpande, Avifaunal Diversity of Nipani Reservoir, Belgaum District Karnataka. The Ecoscan., 2012,pp. 27-33.
S. V. S. Rana, “Essentials of Ecology and Environmental Science” 2nd edn. Prentice-Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi, 2005.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186