A Comparative Analysis of Drainage Morphometry on Hydrologic Characteristics of Kereke and Ukoghor Basins on Flood Vulnerability in Makurdi Town, Nigeria
Hydrology
Volume 5, Issue 3, May 2017, Pages: 32-40
Received: Jun. 30, 2017; Accepted: Jul. 18, 2017; Published: Aug. 15, 2017
Views 1755      Downloads 106
Authors
Oyatayo Kehinde Taofik, Department of Geography, Kwararafa University, Wukari, Nigeria
Bello Innocent, National Space Research and Development Agency, Abuja, Nigeria
Ndabula Christopher, Department of Geography and Regional Planning, Federal University, Dutsin- Ma, Nigeria
Godwill Geofrey Jidauna, Department of Geography and Regional Planning, Federal University, Dutsin- Ma, Nigeria
Ademola Sunday James, Department of Geography, Kwararafa University, Wukari, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The synergistic enforcement of the hydrographic behaviors of Kereke and Ukoghor river basins on the river Benue have been identified as the major contributors of the replete episodic flood hazard of Makurdi town. It is on this note that this study aims at analysing and comparing two categories of morphometric parameters; areal and linear/relief which influence runoff/discharge volumes and time lag of Kereke and Ukoghor river basins hydrograpghs respectively. This analysis provides a better understanding of their hydrographic characteristics and vulnerability to the flood hazard. The potential hydrographic variables examined include: runoff, peak flow, time to peak, infiltration, and overland flow. This was achieved using topographical maps of Makurdi sheet 251 NW and 251 SW on scale 1:50,000 published by Federal Survey of Nigeria (1965). These morphometric parameters were evaluated using ArcGIS 10.2 platform. Results indicated that both basins are 5th order basins with dendritic pattern. Kereke and Ukoghor basins have basin area 261.28 km2 94.82 km2, basin length 26 km/10.79 km, basin perimeter 76.28 km/40.15 km, bifurcation ratio 3.51/3.09, length of overland flow 0.56 km/ 0.42 km, form factor 0.39/0.85, circulatory ratio 0.56/0.70, relief ratio 0.45/0.91, drainage density 0.91/1.20, elongation ratio 0.40/ 0.60 and infiltration number 0.53/1.32 respectively. A comparison of the results of linear/relief parameters indicate that Okoghor drainage constitute fast peak flow and concentration time of shorter duration and hence higher flood vulnerability than Kereke drainage basin. On the other hand a comparison of areal aspects of morphometry Kereke river basin constitutes more vulnerability to flooding in Makurdi town than Ukoghor river basin with regards to hydrograph volume regimes. The outcome of the study is fundamental for prioritizing proactive and sustainable urban flood management, appropriate land use planning and zonation especially along their flood liable areas, storm water management and other general urban environmental degradation management.
Keywords
Morphometry, Drainage Basin, Flood, GIS, Hydrology, Kereke, Ukoghor
To cite this article
Oyatayo Kehinde Taofik, Bello Innocent, Ndabula Christopher, Godwill Geofrey Jidauna, Ademola Sunday James, A Comparative Analysis of Drainage Morphometry on Hydrologic Characteristics of Kereke and Ukoghor Basins on Flood Vulnerability in Makurdi Town, Nigeria, Hydrology. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2017, pp. 32-40. doi: 10.11648/j.hyd.20170503.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Jones, J. A. A. (1999), Global Hydrology: Processes, Resources and Environmental Management, Longman, 399 pp.
[2]
Ajibade, L. T., Ifabiyi, I. P., Iroye, K. A., and Ogunteru, S. (2010). Morphomertic Analysis of Ogunpa and Ogbere Drainage Basins, Ibadan, Nigeria. Ethiopean Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, Vol. 3, number 1: 13-19.
[3]
Jain, V. and Sinha, R. (2003) Evaluation of Geomorphic Control on Flood Hazard through Geomorphic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph. Current Science, 85 (11), 26-32.
[4]
Okoko, E. E. and Olujinmi, J. A. B. (2003), The Role of Geomorphic Features in Urban Flooding: The case of Ala River in Akure, Nigeria. Int. Journal of Environmental Issues, 1 (1), 192-201.
[5]
Ifabiyi, I. P. (2004), a Reduced Rank Model of Drainage Basin Response to Runoff in Upper Kaduna Catchment of Northern Nigeria. Geostudies Forum, 2 (1), 109-117.
[6]
Easthernbrook, D. J. (1993), Surface Processes and Landforms, Macmillian Publishing Co., New York, 325 pp.
[7]
Oruonye, E. D., Ezekiel, B. B., Atiku, H. G., Baba, E. and Musa, N. I. (2016). Drainage basin morphometric parameters of River Lamurde: Implication for hydrologic and Geomorphic processes. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 5 (2): 1-11.
[8]
Morisawa, M. E. (1959), Relation of Morphometric Properties to Runoff in the Little Mill Creek, Ohio Drainage Basin, (Columbia University, Dept. of Geol.) Technical Report, 17, office of Naval Research, Project NR 389-042.
[9]
Faniran, A and Ojo, O. (1980), Man’s Physical Environment, Heinemann Educational Books, London, 404 pp.
[10]
Pitlick, J. (1994), Relations between Peak flows, Precipitation and Physiography for Five Mountainous Regions in Western U.S.A., Journal of Hydrology, 158, 219-240.
[11]
Gregory, K. J. and Walling, D. E. (1973), Drainage Basin Form and Process: A Geomorphological Approach, Edward Arnold, London, 456 pp.
[12]
Ebisemiju, F. S. (1976), the Structure of the Inter-relationship of Drainage Basin Characteristics, Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, 321 pp.
[13]
Adegoke, K. M. and Bulus, L. G. (2015). Hydrological and morphometric analysis of Upper Yedzam catchment of Mubi in Adamawa State, Nigeria, using GIS. World Environment, 5 (2): 63-69.
[14]
Nag, S. K., & Anindita, L. (2011). Morphometric Analysis of Dwarakeswar Watershed, Baukura District, West Bengal, India, using Spatial Information Technology. IJWREE, 3 (10), 212-219.
[15]
Somashekar, R. K., & Ravikumar, P. (92011). Runoff Estimation and Morphometric Analysis for Hesaraghatta Watershed, A Remote Sensing and GIS Approach. Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 39 (1), 95-106.
[16]
Akinwumiju, A. S and Olorunfemi, M. O. (2016). Morphometric Analysis of Osun Drainage Basin, South western Nigeria. Journal of Geography and Geology, Vol. 8, number 4: 9-22.
[17]
Schmidt, J., & Dikau, R. (1999). Extracting Geomorphometric Attributes and Objects from Digital Elevation Models – semantics, Methods, Future Needs. In: Dikau, R. and Saurer, H. (Eds.). GIS for Earth Surface Systems. Gebruder Borntraeger, D – 14129, Berlin. D-70176 Stuttgart, 152-173.
[18]
Abah, R. C. (2013). An application of GIS in mapping flood risk zones in a north central City in Nigeria.
[19]
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Vol.7 (6), pp.365-371.
[20]
BSU Geography Department, field work manual (2016). Local field work manual for Geography Students, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
[21]
Adejuwon, J. O., Jeje, L. K. and Ogunkoya, O. O. (1984), Hydrological Response Patterns of some Third Order Streams on the Basement Complex of Southwestern Nigeria, Hydrological Science Journal, 28 (3), 377-391.
[22]
Strahler, A. N. (1964). Hand book of applied hydrology. In: Chow VT, editor. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basins and channel networks. New York, NY: Mc-Graw Hill Book Company; p. 39–76.
[23]
Morisawa, M. E. (1962), Quantitative Geomorphology of Some Watersheds in the Appalachian Plateau, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull 73, 1025-1046.
[24]
Oyegun, R. O. (1980), the Effects of Tropical Rainfall on Sediment Yield from Different Land use Surface in Sub-urban Ibadan, Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.
[25]
Jeje, L. K. (1999), Landuse and Sediment Yield in Parts of Southwestern Nigeria, Geografia Fisica Dinanio Quarternaria (Italy), 22, 27-29.
[26]
Ritter, D. F., Kochel, R. C., Miller, J. R. (1995). Process Geomorphology. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press Inc.
[27]
Dipak, R. S., Shirish, S. D. and Nagarajan, R. (2014). GIS based drainage morphometry and its influence on hydrology in parts of Western Ghats Region, Maharashtra, India, Geocarto International, DOI: 10.1080110106049.2014.978903.
[28]
Horton, R. E. (1932), Drainage Basins Characteristics, Trans. America Geophys. Union, 13, 350-361.
[29]
Horton, R. E. (1945). Erosional development of streams and their drainage basins; Hydrophysical Approach to quantitative morphology. Bull Geol Soc Am. 56: 275–370.
[30]
Kuldeep, P. and Upasana, P. (2011). Quantitative Morphometric analysis of a watershed of Yamuna Basin, India Using ASTER (DEM) data and GIS. International Journal of Geomatic and Geosciences, Vol. 2, number 1: 248-269.
[31]
Yahya, F., Omar, A. and Ali, S. (2016). Morphometric Analysis and flash floods assessment for drainage basins of the Ras En Naqb Area, South Jordan using GIS. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 14, 9-33.
[32]
Schumm, S. A. (1963), a Tentative Classification of River Channels. U. S. Geol. Survey Circular, 477 (10 pp).
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186