External Virtual Water Contributes Greatly to Continual Development in Urumqi
Volume 7, Issue 4, December 2019, Pages: 56-61
Received: Sep. 10, 2019; Accepted: Dec. 2, 2019; Published: Dec. 7, 2019
Views 498      Downloads 155
Yong Liu, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, China; Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, China; Institute of Science and Technology for Development of Shandong, Jinan, China; Information Research Institute of Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, China
Article Tools
Follow on us
Previous studies indicated that the population size would arrive at its “upper limits” under the intense water scarcity in Urumqi; yet the “upper limits” had been repeatedly exceeded. Two latest research paper put forward a new term “generalized water”, and estimated it under the framework of a noncompetitive input-output model. It was proved that generalized water made a main contribution to alleviate acute water scarcity in the past 40 years in the arid city, and answered the question why an urban population continues to grow under intensifying water scarcity. Another question is whether and how generalized water contributes to the continual development in the future in this city. This paper applied coefficients deduced from the noncompetitive input-output model, and set up a multi-objective linear programming model to investigate the question. Simulation results indicated that the upper limit of gross domestic products of Urumqi would be at most 1.3 times that in 2012; however, this “upper limit” was far more exceeded in 2018, about 1.7 times that in 2012. This phenomenon indicates that generalized water also made a main contribution to continual development, and this contribution mainly comes from external virtual water embodied in commodities. This contribution from generalized water results from the characteristic of dissipative structure in an urban economy, and it is suggested that polices should be designed to make the most use of generalized water.
External Virtual Water, Continual Development, Generalized Water Management, Urumqi
To cite this article
Yong Liu, External Virtual Water Contributes Greatly to Continual Development in Urumqi, Hydrology. Vol. 7, No. 4, 2019, pp. 56-61. doi: 10.11648/j.hyd.20190704.11
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
UN-Water. 2007. "Coping with water scarcity: Challenge of the twenty first century." 〈http://www.unwater.org/wwd07/downloads/documents/escarcity.pdf.
Molden, D. 2007. "Water for food, water for life: A comprehensive assessment of water management in agriculture." Earthscan Ltd., London.
Rodriguez, C., Buynder, P. V., Lugg, R., Blair, P., Devine, B., Cook, A., Weinstein, P. 2009. "Indirect potable reuse: a sustainable water supply alternative." Environment Resource and Public Health, 6 (3), 1174-1209.
Shi, Y. B. 2007."Water Resources Situation and Challenges Facing China." China Economic Information, 8, 28-29. in Chinese.
Hu, H. Y., Yan, Z. Y. 1987. "Water resources and population problems in the economic construction of Urumqi-Karamay area." Northwest Population Journal, 02, 1-11. in Chinese.
Li, P. H., Jiang, P. F. 2013. "Research on The Development and Utilization of Water resources in Urumqi." Ground Water, 35 (2): 67-69. in Chinese.
Xia, F. Q., Tang, H., Yang, D. G., Wang, F. Z. 2014. "Water Resources Pressure of Oasis City and Its Impact on Urban Development." Arid Land Geography, 37 (2), 380-387. in Chinese.
Liu, Y. 2017. "Study on Generalized Water Resources: Contributions from A Non-competitive Water Input-Output Model in Urumqi." PhD Thesis, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences /Xinjiang University, 2017, p. 63-66.
Liu, Y., Yang, D. G, Lü, G. H. (2017) “Water scarcity and generalized water resources management in Urumqi: Contributions from noncompetitive water input-output model”, Journal of Water Resources Planning & Management, 143 (8): 04017038-1-04017038-9.
Liu, Y. 2018. "Why an Urban Population Continues to Grow Under Intensifying Water Scarcity: An Answer from Generalized Water Resources." Urban Water Journal (DOI: 10.1080/1573062X.2019.1595674) 2018, 11.
Chen, X. K., Yang, C. H. 2011. "Input-Output Technique." Science Press, first ed., Beijing (in Chinese).
National Bureau of Statistics of China. 2014. "Methods of Constructing China Input output table in 2012." China Statistical Press, first ed., Beijing (in Chinese).
Bureau of Statistics of Urumqi. 2013-2019. "Urumqi Statistical Year book 2013-2019." China Statistical Press, first ed., Beijing. in Chinese.
Policy Research Office of Urumqi. 2016. "The Red Line of Water Resources of Urumqi." Xinjiang Science Press, first ed., Urumqi. in Chinese.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186