Please enter verification code
Assessment of Some Heavy Metals in Groundwater: Case Study Around an Archaeological Site, Abydos, Sohag, Egypt
Volume 8, Issue 3, September 2020, Pages: 34-40
Received: Jul. 2, 2020; Accepted: Aug. 24, 2020; Published: Sep. 3, 2020
Views 262      Downloads 121
Sherif Abu El-Magd, Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez University, Suez, Egypt
Ahmed Abdel Moneim, Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt
Ahmed Sefelnasr, Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
Article Tools
Follow on us
Water is extremely essentials for existence of the human life, livestock and plants. With grows of world population rapidly and increasing reclamation extension, their needs for water increased dramatically. However, the increase of water discharge and lack of the sewage treatment and system in the study area and adequate industrial disposal system increase the contamination. In the current study, analysis of heavy metals contamination has been studied around the Osireion Lake. The quality index of the collected groundwater samples indicated that the water is of poor to unsuitable water class for domestic use. Some heavy metals such, B-1, Al+3, Fe+3, Mn+2, Ni+2, Ba+2, Cu+2, Pb+2, and Sr+2 were measured in the in the present study to assess the risk factor. The heavy metals contamination has been reported as a potential risk in the groundwater in the study area. Iron and Manganese show some values higher than the maximum permissible of WHO. Iron might have resulted from the interaction of oxidized Fe minerals and organic matter. Strontium and Barium reveal higher values, therefore the higher concentrations of Sr+2 and Ba+2 indicating that the source could be a result of anthropogenic through fertilizer in agricultural activity causes an input of Sr+2 and Ba+2. It is believed that the mixing of groundwater with agricultural return flow and sewage waste, increase the concentration levels of pollutants.
Quality Index, Heavy Metals, Osireion Lake, Abydos, Egypt
To cite this article
Sherif Abu El-Magd, Ahmed Abdel Moneim, Ahmed Sefelnasr, Assessment of Some Heavy Metals in Groundwater: Case Study Around an Archaeological Site, Abydos, Sohag, Egypt, Hydrology. Vol. 8, No. 3, 2020, pp. 34-40. doi: 10.11648/j.hyd.20200803.11
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Sefelnasr A., Abdel Moneim A., Abu El-Magd Sh. (2015): Groundwater level-rise monitoring and recharge determination at an old archeological site: Abydos, Sohag, Egypt. Eighth Int. Conf. on Geology of Africa, P-P IV- 69-IV 83. Assiut-Egypt.
Meteorological Authority of Egypt (MAE), (2000): Meteorological database, Cairo, Egypt.
Abdel Hafez, T. M. (2004): Geophysical and Geotechnical studies in Pharaonic and Urban Egypt, Inaugural Dissertation Universitat Bern.
Abdel Kareem, H. H. (1972): Geology of the area east of the Nile Valley between Sohag and Girga. M. Sc. thesis, Geol. Dept. Fac. Sci., Assiut University, Egypt. 250 p.
Abdel Moneim, A. A. (1988): Hydrogeology of the Nile Valley at Sohag province. M. Sc. thesis, Geology Dept. Faculty of Science, Sohag, Assiut University, 150 p.
Abdel Moneim, A. A. (1992): Numerical simulation and ground water management of the Sohag aquifer, the Nile Valley, Egypt. Ph. D. Thesis civil Eng. Dept. Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow, Scotland, Great Britain.
Said, R. (1981): The geological evaluation of the River Nile. Springer Verlag, New York 151p.
Said, R. (1983): Proposed classification of the Quaternary of Egypt. Jour. of African Earth Sciences. V. 1, p. 41-45.
Brooks, J. and Issawi B. (1992): Groundwater in the Abydos Areas, Egypt; The flooding of the Osireion, Water paper 5; 1992.
Omer, A. A. (1996): Geological, mineralogical and geochemical studies on the Neogene and Quaternary Nile basin deposits, Qena-Assiut stretch, Egypt. Ph. D. thesis, Geology Dept. Faculty of Science, Sohag, South Valley University, 320 p.
CONOCO, (1987): Geologic Map of Egypt. Egyptian General Authority for Petroleum (UNESCO Joint Map Project), 20 Sheets, Scale 1: 500 000. Cairo.
Attia, F. A., (1974): Parameter and characteristics of the groundwater reservoir in Upper Egypt. MSc Thesis, Fac. Eng. Cairo Univ., Egypt.
Attia, F. A. (1985): Management of water systems in Upper Egypt. Ph. D. Thesis, Fac Eng, Cairo Univ., Egypt.
Farrag, A. A., (2005): The hydraulic and hydrochemical impacts of the Nile system on the groundwater in Upper Egypt. Ass. Univ. Bull. Environ. Res. Vol. 8 No. 1, March 2005.
Abdalla, F., Madkour, H., Mohamed, A., Ahmed, A., and Obirikorang, K. (2014): Heavy metal distributions in the Quaternary aquifer as influenced by polluted agricultural drain, Nag-Hammadi area, Qena, Egypt. The 7th Int. Conf. for Develop. and the Env. in the Arab world, March, 23-25.
Brown, R. M., Mc Clelland, N. I., Deininger, R. A., and Tozer, R. G. (1970): A water quality index: do we dare? Water and sewage work 117 (1970) 339e343.
World Health Organization (WHO), (1993): Guidelines for drinking water quality, Vol. 1. WHO, Geneva.
World Health Organization (WHO), (1994): Fluoride and oral health, World Health Organization Tech. Rep. Sec., 846, Geneva.
World Health Organization (WHO), (1996): Guidelines for drinking water quality, (2nd edition). World Health Organization, Geneva. Vol. 2. Health criteria and other supporting information: 940-949.
World Health Organization (WHO), (2008): Guidelines for drinking-water quality [electronic resource]: incorporating 1st and 2nd addenda, vol. 1, Recommendations, third ed. World Health Organization, Geneva.
World Health Organization (WHO), (2011): Guidelines for drinking-water quality, fourth ed. World Health Organization, Geneva.
Négrel, Ph., Petelet-Giraud, E., and Widory, D. (2004): Strontium isotope geochemistry of alluvial groundwater: a tracer for groundwater resources characterisation. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, European Geosciences Union, 2004, 8 (5), pp. 959-972.
Saxena, V., Mondal N., and Singh V. (2004): Identification of seawater ingress using Strontium and Boron in Krishna delta, India. Curr. Sci., 86 (4): 586-590.
Davidson, G. and Bassett, R. (1993): Application of boron isotopes for identifying contaminants such as fly ash leachate in groundwater. Environ. Sci. Technol. 27 (1), 172-176.
Miller, R. and Donahue R. (1995): Soils in our environment, 7th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Akpoveta, O. V., Okoh B. E. and Osakwe, S. A. (2011): Quality assessment of borehole water used in the vicinities of Benin, Edo State and Agbor, Delta State of Nigeria. Current Research in Chemistry, 3: 62-69.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186