Appraisal of Fluoride Concentration, Distribution and Geogenic Origin in Ground and Surface Water from Semi-Arid Region, Part of Yobe State North-eastern Nigeria
Volume 5, Issue 6, November 2017, Pages: 96-101
Received: Jan. 25, 2017; Accepted: Feb. 9, 2017; Published: Jan. 10, 2018
Views 3102      Downloads 125
Mohammad Yerima Kwaya, Department of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
Hamidu Hassan, Department of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
Jibrin Umar, Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Nigeria
Kachalla Musa, African Development Bank-Assisted Rural Water Supply and Sanitation, Yobe State Sub-Programme, Damaturu, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
The Fluoride concentration of water sources from part of Yobe State has been investigated, Fluoride levels in Pond water is between 0.71 and 1.36 mg/l, Dugwells concentration is from 0.00 to 1.5mg/l. The sampled water from tube wells and boreholes have concentrations ranges of 0.65-1.5 mg/l and 0.00- 2.2 mg/l respectively with the level of concentration being a function of depth. Health risk assessment have revealed three classes of risk in terms of Fluoride concentration levels in the water with 16 samples representing 14.3% falling within the Risk class of 1.5≤ R≤ 2.5(risk). Individual consuming such water have the tendency of getting dental fluorosis. Origins of Fluoride in the water are from Fluoride bearing minerals like Micas, Amphiboles, Illites, Apatite, Topaz, and Cryolite which occur in the sandy and clayey layers, anthropogenic sources from agricultural and irrigated land and leachate from dumps are the other possible sources of Fluoride in the tube wells and ponds water respectively. The dissolution, distribution and concentration of Fluoride in groundwater in the area are favoured by the high temperature high evapotranspiration rate and low rainfall situation of the semi-arid climate. Geochemical situation that allowed the leaching of Fluoride into the water are; high Alkaline or soda water environment, anion exchange of OH for F of the aquifer material, water residence time in the aquifer and type of climate. Drab and Sierozem Soil types control and facilitate the mobility and leaching of Fluoride in arid and semi-arid area. Generally the result has shown the area to have medium to average concentration of Fluoride in its waters with the highest value slightly above the 1.5 mg/l of WHO (2011) safe limit for drinking water. Periodic monitoring of Fluoride in the water sources is recommended so as to minimize the chances of people taking in water with high undesirable harmful Fluoride concentration.
Geogenic Origin, Semi-Arid Area, Groundwater, Fluoride Bearing Minerals, Fluvial-Lacustrine Sediment, Yobe State
To cite this article
Mohammad Yerima Kwaya, Hamidu Hassan, Jibrin Umar, Kachalla Musa, Appraisal of Fluoride Concentration, Distribution and Geogenic Origin in Ground and Surface Water from Semi-Arid Region, Part of Yobe State North-eastern Nigeria, Hydrology. Vol. 5, No. 6, 2017, pp. 96-101. doi: 10.11648/j.hyd.20170506.13
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
WHO (2004) Fluoride in Drinking- water. Background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking water quality: WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/96.
Veressinina, Y., Trapido,V. A., Munter, R. (2001) Fluorine in drinking water, the problem and its possible solution. Proce: Estonia Acad. Sci. Chem. vol 50: 2 pp 81-88.
Alabdulaay, I. A., Al-Zarah, I. A., Khan, and A. M. (2013) Occurrence of Fluoride in ground waters of Saudi Arabia: Appl water Science journal, 3: 589-595.
Lar, U. A., Dibal, H., Schoneich, K. (2014) Fluoride in groundwater in Nigeria: origin and human health impact: American journal of Environmental protection 3 (6-2) pp 66-69.
Fawell, J. Bailey, K.,Chilton, J., Fewtrell, L., Magar, Y. (2006) Fluoride in drinking water WHO, IWA Publishing, 1-144.
Sexena, V. K., Ahmaed, S. (2001) Dissolution of Fluoride in groundwater: a water- rock interaction study. Environ geol. 40: 1084-1087.
Shreya, D., Nag, S. K. (2016) Geochemistry appraisal of Fluoride-laden groundwater in Suri I and II Block, Birbhum district, west Bengal. Journal of earth science and climate change, vol: 7 issue 6 pp 1-68.
WHO (2001) Revision of WHO guidelines for drinking water quality world health organization Geneva.
Egbinola, N. C, Amanambu, C. A (20014) Groundwater contamination in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria: Springer open journal 3: 448 pp1-6.
Dibal, H. U., Schoenich, k., Garba, I. Lar, U. A., Bala E. A. (2012) Occurrence of Fluoride in the drinking waters of Lang tang area North central Ngeria: Health vol4 No 11 pp 1116-1126.
Dibal, U. H., Schoenich., k., Garba, I. Lar, U. A., Bala E. A. (2012) Overview of Fluoride distribution in major aquifer units of northern Nigeria: Health vol 4 No 12 pp 1287-1294.
Haruna, I. A., Muhammed,. U., Muhammed, A. A (2014) Environmental distribution of fluoride in drinking waters of Kaltungo area northeastern Nigeria: American journal of environmental protection. 3 (6-2) 19-24.
Lovelyn, S. K., Hamidu, H., Mbiimbe, E. Y., Sidi, M. W., Farida,G. I. (2016) Suitability of ground and surface water resources for different uses in Boh community Gombe state Northeastern Nigeria: nature and science journal 14 (2) pp 22-31.
Amadi, A. N., Aminu, T., Okunlola, I. A., Olasehinde,P. I., Jimoh, M. O. (2015) Lithological influence on the hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in Zango, northwestern Nigeria, natural resources and conservation 3 (1): pp 11-18.
Edmunds, W. M., Fellman, E., Goni, I. B., McNeil, G., Harkness, D. D. (1998) Groundwater palaeoclimate and recharge in the southwest Chad Basin, Borno state, Nigeria. In. Isotopes technique in the study of environmental change. Proceedings of an international symposium, IAEA, Vienna, 1997.
Edmunds, W. M., Fellman, E., Goni, I. B. (1999). Lakes, groundwater and palaeohydrology in the Sahel of NE Nigeria: Evidence from hydrogeochemistry. Journal of geological society of London, 156. pp 345-355.
Emeka,D. O., Weltime, O. M. (2008) Trace elements determination in municipal water supply in Damaturu metropolis Yobe state: Bayero journal of pure and applied sciences, 1 (1): pp58-61.
Waziri, M., Musa, U., Hatis, S. S. (2012) Assessment of Fluoride concentration in surface waters and groundwater sources in northeastern Nigeria: resources and environment 2 (2) pp 67-72.
Dawoud, A. M., Raouf, A. R. A (2008) Groundwater exploration and assessment in rural communities of Yobe state northern Nigeria; water resources management vol. 23 issue 3 pp 581-601.
Mante, M. A. (1986) Groundwater exploitation and drilling technology in Arid areas of Nigeria, Borno as a case study, proceedings of the first annual symposium and training workshop on groundwater resources in Nigeria pp141-173.
Carter, J. D., Barber, W., Tait, E. A., Jones, G. P. (1963) The geology of parts of Adamawa, Bauchi and Borno provinces in northeastern Nigeria: Geol. Survey Niger Bull 30: 108 p.
Offodile, M. E. (2002): An Approach to Groundwater Study and Development in Nigeria Second edition: Published Mecon Geology and Engineering Services Ltd. Jos, Nigeria. 453p.
Obaje, N. G. (2009) Geology and mineral resources of Nigeria: springer 219 p.
Linthurst, R. A., Bourdeau, P., Tardill, R. G. (1995) Methods to assess the effects of chemicals on ecosystems, chichester. UK; John Wiley and Sons.
Kundu, N., Panigrahi, M. K., Tripathy, S., Munshi, S., Powell, M. A.,Hart, B. R.,(2001) Geochemical appraisal of Fluoride contamination of groundwater in the Nayagath district of Orissa. India environ geol vol. 41 (3) pp 451-460.
Sivasankar, V., Darchen, A., Omine, K., Sakthivel, R., (2016) Fluoride: a world Ubiquitous compound, its chemistry, and ways of contamination. Springer international publishing Switzerland. pp 6-32.
Reddy, D. V., Nagabhushanam, P., Sukhija, B. S., Reddy, A. G. S., Smedley, P. L. (2010) Fluoride dynamics in the granitic aquifers of the Wailapally watershed. Nalgonda district: India chem geol: 269 (3-4): pp 278-289.
Yusuf, A. K., Goni, I. B., Hassan, M. (2014) Hydrochemical studies of the groundwater resources of the middle zone aquifer in southeastern Chad basin: IOSR journal of applied geology and geophysics vol. 2issue 2 ver.1 pp61-66.
Wang, W., Li, R., Tan, J., Luo, K., Yang, L., Li, H., Li, Y. (2002) Adsorption and leaching of Fluoride in soils of China: Fluoride, 35 (2): pp 122-129.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186