Characteristics and Features of Electroencephalography (EEG) in Children with Epilepsy
Clinical Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume 4, Issue 4, December 2020, Pages: 76-81
Received: Oct. 14, 2020;
Accepted: Oct. 23, 2020;
Published: Nov. 4, 2020
Views 145 Downloads 70
Putu Tarita Susanti, Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Denpasar, Indonesia
I Gusti Ngurah Made Suwarba, Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Denpasar, Indonesia
Dewi Sutriani Mahalini, Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Denpasar, Indonesia
Epilepsy is a manifestation of impaired brain function with various etiologies in the form of recurrent paroxysmal seizure symptoms. Epilepsy occurs mostly in children. Electroencephalography (EEG) is performed to observe epileptogenic foci, certain epilepsy syndromes, evaluate treatment, and determine prognosis. The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristics and features of EEG in pediatric patients with epilepsy at Sanglah General Hospital. This study is a retrospective descriptive observational study. The data was achieved from medical records of patients who had just been diagnosed with epilepsy at the Pediatric Clinic of Sanglah General Hospital during the periode of January 2017 to December 2019. There was a total of 204 new epilepsy cases, with the prevalence of 6.4 per 1000 population. The data consists of the men vs female (57.4% vs 42,6%) and the majority of patients age range between 1-5 years old (49%). The data consists of generalized epilepsy with motor tonic clonic onset (75.5%) and focal epilepsy with motor tonic onset (20.6%). EEG examination was abnormal in 55.4% of the cases and abnormalities was found in head CT scans (42.7%). The etiology of pediatrics with epilepsy which was unknown (52.5%). More than half of anti-epileptic drug therapy used a monotherapy of valproic acid (54.4%), and polytherapy therapy of valproic acid and carbamazepine (17.6%). Most of the children had good nutritional status (76%). The data showed that a history of neonatal seizures in was found in 17 cases (8.3%), while a family history of epilepsy was found ini 34 cases (16.7%). Conclution that pediatric epileptic patients present with a generalized type of epilepsy onset tonic-clonic motor with an unknown etiology. EEG images are mostly abnormal. On CT scans of the head, abnormalities were found in 42.7% of cases. Most of them received monotherapy with valproic acid.
Putu Tarita Susanti,
I Gusti Ngurah Made Suwarba,
Dewi Sutriani Mahalini,
Characteristics and Features of Electroencephalography (EEG) in Children with Epilepsy, Clinical Neurology and Neuroscience.
Vol. 4, No. 4,
2020, pp. 76-81.
Fisher, R. S., Boas, W. V. E., Blume, W., Elger, C., Genton, P., Lee, P., et al. Epileptic Seizures and Epilepsy: Definition Proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE). Epilepsia. 2005; 46 (4): 470-2.
McAbee, G. N., Wark, J. E. A practical approach to uncomplicated seizures in children. Am Fam Physician. 2000; 62 (5): 1109-16.
Mitchell, W. G., Hirtum, M. V., Desai, J., Luc, Q. N., Behavior, M. V., Desai, J., et al. Behavioral, cognitive and social aspect of childhood epilepsy. 5th Edition. USA: Mosby Elsevier. 2012: p. 871-9.
Guidelines for epidemiologic studies on epilepsy. Commission on Epidemiology and Prognosis, International League Against Epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1993; 34: 592-6.
Engel, J. Jr. A Proposed Diagnostic Scheme for People with Epileptic Seizures and with Epilepsy: Report of the ILAE Task Force on Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2001; 42 (6): 796-803.
Annegers, J. F., Rocca, W. A., Hauser, W. A. Cause of epilepsy: contributions of the Rochester epidemiology project. Mayo Clin Proc. 1996; 71 (6): 570-5.
Brodie, M. J., French, J. A. Management of epilepsy in adolescents and adults. Lancet. 2000; 22; 356 (9226): 323-9.
Gidal, B. E., and Garnett, W. R. Epilepsy in Dipiro, Pharmacotherapy : A Pathophysiologic Approach. 6th edition. USA: Mc. Graw Hill. 2005; p. 1023-48.
Commission on Clasification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy. Proposal for revised clinical and electrographic classifation of epileptic seizures. Epilepsia. 1981; 22: 489-501.
Jimmy, P. 1996. Epidemiologi epilepsi. Buku Ajar Neurologi Anak. Jakarta: IDAI. 1996; h. 190-7.
Commission on Epidemiology and Prognosis of the International League Against Epilepsy. Guidelines for epidemiologic studies of epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1993; 34: 592-6.
Baldin, E., Hauser, W. A., Buchhalter, J. R., Hesdorffer, D. C., Ottman, R. Yield of epileptiform electroencephalogram abnormalities in incident unprovoked seizures: a population-based study. Epilepsia. 2014; 55: 1389-98.
Christensen, J., Kjeldsen, M. K., Andersen, H., Friis, M. L., Sidenius, P. Gender differences in epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2005; 46: 956-60.
Ali, C., Ayse, S., Deniz, Y., Vehbi, D., Secil, O., et al. Prevalence of some risk factors in childhood with epilepsy compared to their controls. Seizure. 2007; 16: 338-44.
Stafstrom, C. E. The pathophysiology of epileptic seizure: a primer for pediatricians. Pediatr Rev. 1998; 19: 342-51.
Shorvon, S. The concept of symptomatic epilepsy and the complexities of assigning cause in epilepsy. Epilepsy behave. 2014; 31: 1-8.
Holmes, G. H. Epilepsy in the developing brain: lessons from the laboratory and clinic. Epilepsia. 1997; 38: 12-30.
Pandolfo, M. Genetics of epilepsy. Semin Neurol. 2011; 31 (5): 506–18.
Bhalla, D., Godet, B., Druet-Cabanac, M., Preux, P. M. Etiologies of epilepsy: a comprehensive review. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011; 11 (6): 861–76.
Marsan, C. A., Zivin, L. S. Factors related to the occurrence of typical paroxysmal abnormalities in the EEG records of epileptic patients. Epilepsia. 1970; 11: 361-81.
Pillai, J., Sperling, M. R. Interictal EEG and the diagnosis of epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2006; 47: 14-22.
Mac, T. L., Tran, D. S., Quet, F., Odermatt, P., Preux, P. M., Tan, C. T. Epidemiology, etiology, and clinical management of epilepsy in Asia: a systematic review. Lancet Neurol. 2007; 6: 533-43.
Berg, A. T., Shinnar, S., Levy, S. R., Testa, F. M. Newly diagnosed epilepsy in children: presentation at diagnosis. Epilepsia. 1999; 40: 345-47.
Robert, S., Helen, C., Carol, D., Jacquelline, A., Sheryl, R., et al. Instruction manual fot the ILAE 2017 operational classification of seizure types. Epilepsia. 2017; 58 (4): 531-42.
Vozikis, A., Goulionis, J. E., Nikolakis, D. Risk Factors associated with epilepsy: a case-control study. Heal Sci J. 2012; 6 (3): 509-16.
Gilbert, D. L., Gartside, P. S. Factors affecting the yield of pediatric EEGs in clinical practice. Clin Pediatr. 2002; 41: 25-32.
Eli, S., Jacob, G., Sarit, A., Aharon. The complementary of sleep devrivation on EEG. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2010; 12: 308-12.
Gilbert, D. L., Sethuramana, G., Kotagal, U., Buncher, C. R. Meta-analysis of EEG test performance show wide variation among studies. Neurology. 2002; 60: 564-70.
Deroos, S. T., Chillag, K. L., Keeler, M., Gilbert, D. L. Effect of sleep devrivation on the pediatric electroencephalogram. Pediatrics. 2009; 123: 703-8.
King, M. A., Newton, M. R., Jackson, G. D., Fitt, G. J., Mitchell, L. A., Silvapulle, M. J., et al. Epileptology of the first-seizure presentation: a clinical, electroencephalographic, and magnetic resonance imaging study of 300 consecutive patients. Lancet. 1998; 352: 1007-11.
Narayanan, J. T., Labar, D. R., Schaul, N. Latency to first spike in the EEG of epilepsy. Seizure. 2008; 17: 34-41.
Fang, P. C., Chen, Y. J., Lee, I. C. Seizure precipitants in children with intractable epilepsy. Brain Dev. 2008; 30: 527-32.
Michel, L. V., Jacques, M., Vincent, N., Paul, B., Michel, D. H., Claude, A., et al. Anticipation of epileptic seizures from standard EEG recordings. Lancet. 2001; 357: 183-7.
Gaillar, W. D., Chiron, C., Cross, J. H., Harvey, S., Kuzniecky, R., et al. Guidelines for imaging infants and children with recent-onset epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2009; 50: 2147-53.
Rallam DK. Investigating epilepsy: CT and MRI in epilepsy. Nepal Journal of Neuroscience. 2004: 67-72.
Bruni, J., Wilder, B. J., Bauman, A. W., Willmore, L. J. Clinical efficacy and long-term effects of valproic acid therapy on spike-and-wave discharges. Neurology. 1980; 30: 42-6.
Glauser, T., Ben-Menachem, E., Bourgeois, B. Updated ILAE Evidence Review of Antiepileptic Drug Efficacy and Effectiveness as Initial Monotherapy for Epileptic Seizures and Syndromes. Epilepsi. 2013; 54 (3): 251-61.