Comparative Study of Precancerous Lesions of the Uterine Cervix Among Users and Non-Users of Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills in Jos, Nigeria
International Journal of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Research
Volume 3, Issue 3, June 2018, Pages: 35-40
Received: Jan. 3, 2018; Accepted: Aug. 31, 2018; Published: Sep. 27, 2018
Views 1249      Downloads 113
Yakubu Emmanuel Nyam, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
Ajen Stephen Anzaku, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Bingham University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
Innocent Emmanuel, Department of Histopathology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
Isikhuemen Ehikoya Maradona, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria
Ekwedigwe Chinedu Kenneth, National Obstetric Fistula Centre, Abakaliki, Nigeria
Daru Patrick Haruna, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
Ocheke Ngozi Amaka, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
Ujah Achanya Otobo Innocent, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Combined oral contraceptive pills (COCP) use, is link to the development of precancerous cervical lesions. There are variations in reports across studied populations. Our study was a comparative, cross-sectional study. SPSS version 20 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) was used for data analysis and P-Value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The Prevalence of precancerous cervical lesions in the Exposed and Control groups were 16.4% (9/55) and 14.5% (8/55) respectively (P = of 0.79). In the exposed group, four out of the nine women that had abnormal cervical cytology results had high grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HGSIL) while only one out of 8 women that had abnormal cytology results in the control group had HGSIL. We found no significant difference in the prevalence of pre-cancerous cervical lesions between users and non-users of COCP. However, women who used COCP had higher cases of HGSIL when compared with the control group. Therefore, we suggest relatively short schedule of cervical cytology screening for this group of women relative to the general population.
Papanicolaou Smear Test, Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills, Precancerous Cervical Lesions
To cite this article
Yakubu Emmanuel Nyam, Ajen Stephen Anzaku, Innocent Emmanuel, Isikhuemen Ehikoya Maradona, Ekwedigwe Chinedu Kenneth, Daru Patrick Haruna, Ocheke Ngozi Amaka, Ujah Achanya Otobo Innocent, Comparative Study of Precancerous Lesions of the Uterine Cervix Among Users and Non-Users of Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills in Jos, Nigeria, International Journal of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Research. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2018, pp. 35-40. doi: 10.11648/j.ijcocr.20180303.14
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Norma McFarlane-Anderson. Patience E Bazuaye, Maria D Jackson, Monica Smikle and Horace M Fletcher. Cervical dysplasia and cancer and the use of hormonal contraceptives in Jamaican women. BMC Women Health 2008; 8-9.
Onah H.E. Family Planning. In: Ikpeze O(Ed) Fundamentals of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 1st Edition. African First Publishers. 2009; 31:305.
Anorlu R.I Tumours of the cervix uteri. In: Akin Agboola(Ed) Textbook of Obstetrics and gynaecology for medical students. 2nd Edition. Heinemann Educational Books Plc.2006; 21:167-70.
Anorlu R.I. Cervical cancer: the Sub-Saharan Perspective. J Reproductive health matters 2008; 16(32):41-9.
IARC Working group on the evaluation on the evaluations of carcinogenic risks to humans on combined oestrogen-progestogen and combined oestrogen-progestogen menopausal therapy. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Human Press Lyon (France). 2006; 91:1-528.
Pam VC. Contraception Method Mix and Trend at Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos J Med 2014; 8(1):5-9.
Cameron ST, Glasier A. Contraception and Sterilization. In: Edmonds DK(Ed). Dewhurst Textbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 8th edition Wiley-Blackwell Publishers.2012; 40:495-504.
Vaisy A, Lotfinejad S, Zhian F. Risk of combined oral contraceptive use among Iranian women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014; 15(14):5517-22.
IA Yakassai, HM Abdullahi, AZ Mohammed and H Galadanci. Prevalence of cervical dysplasia among women in Kano Municipal, Kano state, Nigeria. J Med Trop 2012; 14(1):64-8.
Ayodele Omotoso, Patience Odusola and Martin Nnoli. Abnormal cervical smears in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Sch J App Med Sci 2015; 3(2A):589-94.
Obaseki DE, Nwafor CC. Cervical cancer screening in Benin City, South-South Nigeria. ISOR Journal of dental and Medical sciences (IOSR-JDMS) 2013; 5(1):16-19.
Mohammed Hauwa Inna. Prevalence of Abnormal cervical cytology and knowledge of cervical cancer screening among women attending gynaecologic clinic of General Hospital Minna, Nigeria. Dspace @ my university 2014.
Olusola Aishat Mosuro, Ikeoluwa Ajayi, Akin-Tunde Ademola Odukogbe, Adetunji Oladeni Adeniji, Olayiwola Oluwasola, Effiong Essien Udo Akang et al. Prevalence of cervical dysplasia and associated risk factors among women in a Primary health care Centre clinic in Nigeria. J Basic Clin Reprod Sci 2015; 4(2):70-9.
Duru CB, Oluoha R.U, Uwakwe K.A, Diwe KC, Merenu LA, Iwu CA et al. Pattern of PAP smear test results among Nigerian women attending clinics in a teaching hospital. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 2015; 4(4):986-98.
Daru PH, Pam IC, Musa J, Daniyan MG, Silas OI, Adewole IF et al.. Cervical Epithelial changes in Tertiary Hospital in northern Nigeria. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol 2013; 30(1):109-13.
Bukar M, Mayun AA, Audu BA and Inuwa A. Prevalence of preinvasive lesions of the cervix in Maiduguri, North-Eastern Nigeria. J Niger Med Pract 2009; 55(4)52-5.
Solomon Avidime, Saad A Ahmed, Adekunle Oguntayo, Teni O Abu and James A Ndako. Pattern of Cervical dysplasia among women of reproductive age group in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. J Med Trop 2014; 16:52-5.
Urmila Banik, Pradip Bhattacharjee, Shahab Uddin Ahamad and Zillur Rahman. Pattern of Epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation. Cyto Journal 2011; 8:8.
Leonard Ogbonna Ajah, Chibuke Ogwuegbu Chigbu, Benjamin Chukwuma Ozumba, Theoplhilus Chimezie Oguanuo and Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu. Is there any association between hormonal contraceptive and cervical dysplasia in a poor Nigerian setting? Onco Targets Ther 2015; 9: 1887—92.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186