In this study, 190 students (100 females and 90 males) aged 10-12 years of a selected sample from elementary school students in Cairo were chosen to investigate the effect of food habits and nutritional behaviors on their nutritional status. Our study revealed that 82.2% of children reported having breakfast, 57.5% of those had breakfast at home. Mother education had strong correlation with eating breakfast at home. It is found that the daily macronutrients intake were significantly higher in males than females. The mean daily intake of both macro- and micronutrients were higher for breakfast consumers than for breakfast skippers. With respect to BMI, the results indicate that the underweight were 10.5% and the overweight were 13.7% of the total sample, upon studying some dietary habits of the students and their associations with BMI, it can noticed that 8.4% of overweight students do not eat breakfast at home, 9.5% eat fast foods, 12.6% have snacks, their fruit and vegetable frequency intake/week are much lower than that of normal weight students and their regular physical activity are also lower than normal weight students. Females consumed milk or dairy products more frequently than males. It is found that there is positive correlation between dairy, fruit and vegetable intake and mother education. Also, there is a positive correlation between dairy, fruits and vegetables consumption and having the daily requirements of minerals and vitamins.
Hanan A. Hussien,
Effect of Food Habits on the Nutritional Status of Children in Cairo, Biomedical Statistics and Informatics.
Vol. 2, No. 1,
2017, pp. 10-17.
Affenito, S. G. (2007). Breakfast: A missed opportunity. J Am Diet Assoc.; 107, 565-569.
Affenito, S. G; Thompson, D. R; Barton, B. A; Franko, D. L; Daniels, S. R; Obarzanek, E; Schreiber, G. B. and Striegel-Moore, R. H. (2005). Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index. J Am Diet Assoc.; 105, 938-945.
Ahadi, Z.; Qorbani, M.; Kelishadi, R.; Ardalan, G.; Motlagh, M. E.; Asayesh, H.; Zeynalid, M; Chiniang, M.; Larijanih, B.; Shafieea, G. and Heshmat, R. (2015). Association between breakfast intake with anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and food consumption behaviors among Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study. Public health, 129 (6), 740-747.
Albertson, A. M; Thompson, D; Franko, D. L; Kleinman, R. E; Barton, B. A. and Crockett, S. J. (2008). Consumption of breakfast cereal is associated with positive health outcomes: Evidence from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Nutr Res.; 28, 744-752.
Arcan, Chrisa; Kubik, Martha y.; Fulkerson, Jayne A. and Story, Mary. (2009). Socio demographic differences in selected eating practices among alternative high school students. J Am Diet Assoc. 109, 823-829.
Borghese, M. M., Tremblay, M. S., Leduc, G., Boyer, C., Bélanger, P., LeBlanc, A. G., Francis, C. and Chaput, J. P. (2014). Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9-to 11-year-old Canadian children. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 39 (8), 937-943.
Cadogen, J; Eastell, R; Jones, N and Barker, M. E. (1997). Milk intake and bone mineral acquisition in adolescent girls: randomized, controlled intervention trail. BMJ. 315: 1255-1260.
Chaput, J., Janssen, I., and Spence, J. (2012). Time spent sedentary and active and cardiometabolic risk factors in children. JAMA, 307: 2024–2025.
Cockroft, JE; Durkin, M; Masding, C and Cade, JE (2005). Fruit and vegetable intakes in a sample of pre-school children participating in the ‘five for all’ project in Bradford. Public Health Nutr.; 8, 861-869.
Coon, K. A and Tucker K. L. (2002). Television and children’s consumption patterns. A review of the literature. Minerva Pediatr.; 54: 423-436.
DNPCNCD, Diet, nutrition and prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases among Egyptian adolescents Phase 1, 2008. Clinical Nutrition Department, National Nutrition Institute, Ministry of Health.
Dwyer, JT; Evans, M; Stone, EJ; Feldman, HA; Lytle, L; Hoelscher, D; Johnson, C; Zive, M and Yang, M (2001). Child, Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health Cooperative Research G. Adolescents’ eating patterns influence their nutrient intakes. J Am Diet Assoc.; 101: 798-802.
El-Zanaty, F and Way, Ann. (2009). Egypt Demographic and Health Survey 2008. Cairo, Egypt: Ministry of Health.
FIAS (1998). Food Intake Analysis System, Texas University, version 3, 1998.
Food and Nutrition Board (1997). Institute of medicine. "Dietary reference intakes (DRI’s) for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D and fluoride" Washington DC: National Academy Press.
Gable, S. and Lutz, S. (2000). Household, parent, and child contributions to childhood obesity. Fam Relat.; 49, 293-300.
Galal, Osman M. (2002). The nutrition transition in Egypt: obesity, under-nutrition and the food consumption context. Public Health Nutrition: 5 (1A), 141–148.
Ibrahim, N. A; El-Gendy, A. A; Youssef, I. A. and Hussien, H. A. (2006). Nutritive and economic study on primary school pupils in Egypt. The 7th International Conference for Food Industries Quality Control “Food Quality 2006”, 274-287.
Janssen, I; Katzmarzyk, P. T.; Boyce, W. F.; King, M. A. and Pickett, W. (2004). Overweight and Obesity in Canadian Adolescents and their Associations with Dietary Habits and Physical Activity Patterns. J. Adol. Health; 35, 360-367.
Lauria, L., Spinelli, A., Cairella, G., Censi, L., Nardone, P., & Buoncristiano, M. (2015). Dietary habits among children aged 8-9 years in Italy. Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 51 (4), 371-381.
Lohman, T. G; Roche, A. F. and Martorell, R. (1988). Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books.
Lytle, LA; Seifert, S; Greenstien, J. and McGovern, P. (2000). How do children's eating patterns and food choices change over time? Result from a cohort study. Am. J. Health Promot.; 14: 222-228.
Natalie, D. R; Shahin, S. and Mohamed, H. M (2007). The influence of socio demographic factors on patterns of fruits and vegetables consumption in Canadian adolescents. J. Am. Diet Assoc; 107, 1511-1518.
Nicklas, T. A; Reger, C; Myers, L. and O’Neil, C. (2000). Breakfast consumption with and without vitamin-mineral supplement use favorably impacts daily nutrient intake of ninth-grade students. J Adolesc Health. 27: 314-321.
Resnicow, K. (1991). The relationship between breakfast habits and plasma cholesterol levels in schoolchildren. J Sch Health.; 61, 81-85.
Saleh, E. M. M. (2004). Impact of food habits and nutritional behaviours, of children and young adolescents on nutrition status. Egyptian J. of Nutrition, 19 (2), 177-199.
Stang, J; Kong, A; Story, M; Eisenberg, M. E. and Neumark- Sztziner, D. (2007). Food and weight-related patterns and behaviors of Hmong adolescents. J Am diet Assoc.; 107: 936-941
Utter, J.; Scragg, R.; Mhurchu, C. and Schaaf, D. (2007). At-Home Breakfast Consumption among New Zealand Children: Associations with Body Mass Index and Related Nutrition Behaviors. J Am Diet Assoc; 107, 570-576.
Van Lippevelde W, Te Velde SJ, Verloigne M, Van Stralen MM, De Bourdeaudhuij I, et al. (2013). Associations between family-related factors, breakfast consumption and BMI among 10- to 12-year-old European children. The Cross-Sectional ENERGY-Study. PLoS One, 8 (11): e79550.
Vanelli, M; Iovane, B; Bernardini, A; Chiari, G; Errico, Mn; Gelmetti, Chiara; Corchia, Matteo; Ruggerini, Anna; Volta, Elio; Rossetti, Stefano and Students of the Post-Graduate School of Paediatrics, University of Parma. (2005). Breakfast habits of 1,202 Northern Italian children admitted to a summer sport school. Breakfast skipping is associated with overweight and obesity. ACTA BIOMED, 76; 79-85.
Videon, T. M. and Manning, C. K. (2003). Influences on adolescent eating patterns: The importance of family meals. J Adolesc Health.; 32, 365-373.
Wilson, N; Parnell, W; Wohlers, M. and Shirley, P. (2006). Eating breakfast and its impact on children’s daily diet. Nutr. Diet.; 63, 15-20.
Woodruff, S. J and Hanning, RM. (2009). Associations between family dinner frequency and specific food behaviors among grade six, seven, and eight students from Ontario and Nova Scotia. J Adolesc Health.; 106: 1-6.
World Health Organization (2014). European Food and Nutrition Action Plan 2015-2020. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2014.
Xie- Bin; Gilliland, Frank D.; Li, Yu-Fen; and Rocket, Helaine RH. (2003). Effects of Ethnicity, family income, and education on dietary intake among adolescents. Preventive Medicine 36, 30-40
Zabinski, M. F; Daly, T; Norman, G; Rupp, Joan W.; Calfas, Karen; Sallis, James F. and Patrick, Kevin. (2006). Psychosocial correlates of fruits, vegetables, and dietary fat intake among adolescent boys and girls. J Am Diet Assoc; 106: 814-821.