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Mathematical Modeling and Optimal Control Analysis on Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
Biomedical Statistics and Informatics
Volume 5, Issue 4, December 2020, Pages: 87-99
Received: Nov. 5, 2020; Accepted: Nov. 21, 2020; Published: Dec. 31, 2020
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Lawal Jibril, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Federal University Gusau, Gusau, Nigeria
Opeyemi Odetunde, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Physical Science, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have remained the leading causes of global death in the last 16 years which is the cause of mortality of 17.7 million people every year. Nowadays, people live in a time where sitting takes up the majority of their daily affairs. The sedentary behavior for prolonged periods of time can leads to a problem of deadly disease such as heart disease, obesity, and diabetes. In this paper a deterministic model for the effects of prolonged sitting is designed. The model, which consists of three ordinary differentials equations is developed and analyzed to study the optimal control analysis on sedentary behavior, physical activity in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a community. The solutions of the model uniquely exist, nonnegative for all t ≥ 0 with nonnegative initial conditions in R3+, and bounded in a region ΩN. The basic reproduction number which measures the relationship threshold is presented. The model was extended and optimal control theory was applied to examine optimal strategies for controlling or eradicating the new cases of CVD that may be borne due to a life of inactivity. The control measures comprises of education or sensitization u1, living a healthy lifestyle (good nutrition, weight management) u2, and getting plenty of physical activity u3. The impact of using possible combinations of the three intervention strategies was investigated and analyzed. The results of the optimal control model using Pontryagin maximum principle (PMP) revealed that combination of education or sensitization with any other control strategy yields better result to reduce or eradicate the risk of new cases of CVD from sedentary lifestyle.
Deterministic Model, Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Cardiovascular Disease, Optimal Control Analysis
To cite this article
Lawal Jibril, Opeyemi Odetunde, Mathematical Modeling and Optimal Control Analysis on Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), Biomedical Statistics and Informatics. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2020, pp. 87-99. doi: 10.11648/j.bsi.20200504.13
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This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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