Living with Type 1 Diabetes: The Influence of the Child’s Gender on Family Functioning
International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology
Volume 2, Issue 3, September 2017, Pages: 43-49
Received: Jul. 15, 2017; Accepted: Jul. 28, 2017; Published: Aug. 18, 2017
Views 1829      Downloads 160
Maurice Place, School of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, England
Alexandra Louise Whitehead, Sniperley House, Tees, Esk & Wear Valley NHS Foundation Trust, Durham, England
Joanna Reynolds, School of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, England
Article Tools
Follow on us
Having a child with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has an impact on the family’s dynamics, but less is known about the specific influence the child’s gender exerts. The parents attending a routine diabetic review clinic were asked to complete the Family Adaptation and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES-IV), and associated measures of family communication and satisfaction with family life. 53 mothers and 10 fathers completed the questionnaires, and the results revealed that mothers found communication within the family poorer if the index child was a girl, and felt less satisfied with family life. The fathers reports tended to echo this view. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed, and it is suggested that routine review of children with T1D should maintain awareness that family functioning may be experiencing strain, particularly if the index child is a girl.
Diabetes, Gender, Family Functioning, FACES IV
To cite this article
Maurice Place, Alexandra Louise Whitehead, Joanna Reynolds, Living with Type 1 Diabetes: The Influence of the Child’s Gender on Family Functioning, International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2017, pp. 43-49. doi: 10.11648/j.ijde.20170203.13
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Botello-Harbaum, M., et al., Responsive parenting is associated with improved type 1 diabetes-related quality of life. Child: Care, Health and Development, 2008. 34: p. 675 - 681.
Hema, D. A., et al., Daily Stressors and Coping Responses of Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes. Child: Care, Health and Development, 2009. 35: p. 330 - 339.
Lowes, L., J. W. Gregory, and P. Lyne, Newly diagnosed childhood diabetes: A psychosocial transition for parents? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2005. 50: p. 253 - 261.
Hoey, H. and H. S. G. O. C. Diabetes., Psychosocial factors are associated with metabolic control in adolescents: research from the Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes.. Pediatric Diabetes, 2009. 10 Suppl 13: p. 9 - 14.
Bandura, A., Social learning theory. 1977, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Jubber, A. P., et al., Individual and family predictors of psychological control in parents raising children with type 1 diabetes. Families, Systems, & Health, 2013. 31 (2): p. 142-155.
Harris, M. A., et al., Family therapy with adolescents with diabetes: A litmus test for clinically meaningful change. Families, Systems, & Health, 2001. 19 (2): p. 159-168.
Detzel, T., et al., Family burden and family environment: Comparison between patients with panic disorder and with clinical diseases. Psychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences 2015. 69: p. 100 - 108.
Spokas, M. and R. G. Heimberg, Overprotective Parenting, Social Anxiety, and External Locus of Control: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Relationships. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2009. 33: p. 543 - 551.
Drotar, D., et al., Diabetes management and glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes: test of a predictive model. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2013. 36 (3): p. 234-245.
Olson, D. H., FACES IV and the Circumplex Model: Validation Study. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 2011. 37 (1): p. 64-80.
Gorall, D., FACES IV and circumplex model 2002, University of Minnesota: St Paul.
Sanderson, J., et al., The Measurement of Outcome Variables in Couple and Family Therapy Research. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 2009. 37 (3): p. 239-257.
Hamilton, E. and A. Carr, Systematic Review of Self-Report Family Assessment Measures. Family Process, 2016. 55 (1): p. 16-30.
Baiocco, R., et al., Factorial and Construct Validity of FACES IV Among Italian Adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 2013. 22: p. 962 - 970.
Mirnics, Z., et al., Cross-cultural applicability of FACES IV. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 2010. 21: p. 17 - 33.
Kim, H., et al., Differentiation and healthy family functioning of koreans in south korea, south koreans in the united states, and white americans.. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 2015. 41: p. 72 - 85.
Olson, D. H. and H. Barnes, Family Communication Scale. 2009, Minneapolis: MN: Life Innovations, Inc.
Olson, D. H., Family Satisfaction Scale. 2004, Minneapolis, MN: Life Innovations, Inc.
Olson, D. H. and M. Wilson, Family satisfaction, in Families: What Makes Them Work., D. H. Olson, H. I. Mc Cubbin, and H. Barnes, Editors. 1989, Sage Publishing: Newbury Park, CA.
Finzi-Dottan, R., et al., The Drug-User Husband and His Wife: Attachment Styles, Family Cohesion, and Adaptability. Substance Use & Misuse, 2003. 38 (2): p. 271-292.
Marsac, M. L. and M. A. Alderfer, Psychometric properties of the FACES-IV in a pediatric oncology population. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 2011. 36: p. 528 - 538.
Fisher, M. and M. Bushlow, Perceptions of family styles by adolescents with eating disorders and their parents. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 2015. 27 (4).
Freud, S., Some psychical consequences of the anatomical distinction between the sexes (1925), in Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, The Vol 19. 1925, Penguin (2001): London.
Klimes-Dougan, B., et al., Adolescent Emotion Socialization: A Longitudinal Study of Friends' Responses to Negative Emotions. Social Development, 2014. 23 (2): p. 395-412.
Zagni, E., L. Simoni, and D. Colombo, Sex and Gender Differences in Central Nervous System-Related Disorders. Neuroscience Journal, 2016. 2016: p. 1-13.
Demmer, D. H., et al., Sex Differences in the Prevalence of Oppositional Defiant Disorder During Middle Childhood: a Meta-Analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2017. 45 (2): p. 313-325.
Moffitt, T. E., et al., Sex Differences in Antisocial Behaviour. 2001, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Salk, R. H., et al., The contemporary face of gender differences and similarities in depression throughout adolescence: Development and chronicity. Journal of Affective Disorders, 2016. 205: p. 28-35.
Nowakowski, M. E., T. McFarlane, and S. Cassin, Alexithymia and eating disorders: a critical review of the literature. Journal of Eating Disorders, 2013. 1 (1): p. 21.
Cuijpers, P., et al., The effects of psychological treatment of maternal depression on children and parental functioning: a meta-analysis. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2015. 24 (2): p. 237-245.
Bygren, L. O., et al., Change in paternal grandmothers ´ early food supply influenced cardiovascular mortality of the female grandchildren. BMC Genetics, 2014. 15 (1): p. 12.
Lamb, M. E., Mothers, Fathers, Families, and Circumstances: Factors Affecting Children's Adjustment. Applied Developmental Science, 2012. 16 (2): p. 98-111.
Laursen, B., K. C. Coy, and W. A. Collins, Reconsidering Changes in Parent-Child Conflict across Adolescence: A Meta-Analysis. Child Development, 1998. 69 (3): p. 817-832.
Friedman, G., The Mother-Daughter Bond. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 1980. 16 (1): p. 90-97.
Doucet, A., Gender roles and fathering, in Handbook of father involvement: Multidisciplinary perspectives, C. N. J. and T.-L. C. S., Editors. 2013, Routledge: New York. p. 151 - 167.
Lang, S. N., et al., Relations between fathers’ and mothers’ infant engagement patterns in dual-earner families and toddler competence.. Journal of Family Issues, 2014. 35: p. 1107 - 1127.
Flouri, E., Correlates of parents’ involvement with their adolescent children in restructured and biological two-parent families: The role of child characteristics. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 2004. 28: p. 148 - 156.
Fischer, L. R., Between mothers and daughters. Marriage and Family Review, 1991. 16: p. 237 - 248.
Sood, E. D., et al., Mother - father informant discrepancies regarding diabetes management: Associations with diabetes-specific family conflict and glycemic control. Health Psychology, 2012. 31 (5): p. 571-579.
Lamb, M. E., The history of research on father involvement: An overview. Marriage & Family Review, 2000. 29: p. 23 - 42.
Morman, M. T. and K. Floyd, Good Fathering: Father and Son Perceptions of What It Means to Be a Good Father. Fathering, 2006. 4: p. 113 - 136.
Ryan, C. M. and L. A. Morrow, Self-esteem in diabetic adolescents: Relationship between age at onset and gender. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1986. 54 (5): p. 730-731.
Nieuwesteeg, A., et al., Quality of Life of Children with Type 1 Diabetes: A Systematic Review. Current Diabetes Reviews, 2012. 8 (6): p. 434-443.
Rohan, J. M., et al., Identification and prediction of group-based glycemic control trajectories during the transition to adolescence. Health Psychology, 2014. 33 (10): p. 1143-1152.
Patton, S. R., et al., Dietary adherence and mealtime behaviors in young children with type 1 diabetes on intensive insulin therapy. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2013. 113: p. 258 - 262.
Anderson, B. J., Family Conflict and Diabetes Management in Youth: Clinical Lessons From Child Development and Diabetes Research. Diabetes Spectrum, 2004. 17 (1): p. 22-26.
Weissberg-Benchell, J., et al., Generic and Diabetes-specific Parent†Child Behaviors and Quality of Life Among Youth with Type 1 Diabetes. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 2009. 34 (9): p. 977-988.
Rohan, J. M., et al., Predicting Health Resilience in Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes: A Test of the Resilience Model Framework. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 2015. 40 (9): p. 956-967.
Hilliard, M. E., et al., Predictors of Deteriorations in Diabetes Management and Control in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2013. 52 (1): p. 28-34.
King, P. S., et al., Longitudinal Trajectories of Metabolic Control Across Adolescence: Associations With Parental Involvement, Adolescents' Psychosocial Maturity, and Health Care Utilization. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2012. 50 (5): p. 491-496.
Ellis, D. A., et al., The Role of Parental Monitoring in Adolescent Health Outcomes: Impact on Regimen Adherence in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 2007. 32 (8): p. 907-917.
Phillips-Salimi, C. R., et al., Perceptions of communication, family adaptability and cohesion: a comparison of adolescents newly diagnosed with cancer and their parents. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 2014. 26: p. 19 - 26.
Laudani, C., et al., Does a Mediterranean Model of Family Functioning in the Perception of Italian and Spanish Adolescents Exist? A Cross-National Study. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 2014.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186