Please enter verification code
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Deficiency and Dyslipidemia in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects
International Journal of Chinese Medicine
Volume 1, Issue 3, July 2017, Pages: 108-112
Received: Feb. 12, 2017; Accepted: Apr. 13, 2017; Published: Jul. 11, 2017
Views 1844      Downloads 100
Azhar Memon, Department of Medicine, Isra University, Hyderabad, Pakistan
Muhammad Atif Ata, Department of Biochemistry, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
Shumaila Shaikh, Department of Biochemistry, Khairpur Medical College, Khairpur, Pakistan
Haji Khan Khoharo, Department of Medicine, Isra University, Hyderabad, Pakistan
Article Tools
Follow on us
The present Observational study was conducted to estimate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 deficiency and its association with dyslipidemia in type 2 Diabetes mellitus subjects at the Department of Medicine, Isra University Hospital and Consultant Clinics Hyderabad from January 2014 to July 2014. A sample of 310 diagnosed type 2 DM were selected through non-probability purposive sampling according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Serum 25-OH-D3 was estimated by ARCHITECT I 1000 system. Lipids sub fractions were analyzed according to standard methods. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 21.0. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 21.0. Continuous and categorical variables were analyzed by student’s t test and chi square test respectively. The associations of various lipid fractions with vitamin D3 were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation. The significant p-value was taken at ≤ 0.05. Reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were observed in 84.1% (n = 261). The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels as low as 6ng/dl was observed in present study. The lipid profile status of subjects with normal and reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 showed significant differences (p = 0.001). Triglycerides, LDLc, VLDLc, and Cholesterols exhibited an inverse correlation with 25 hydroxyvitamin D3; however a positive correlation was noted for HDL cholesterol. In conclusion, the vitamin D3 deficiency was observed in type 2 diabetic subject and showed independent association with dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetics.
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, Dyslipidemia, Diabetes Mellitus, Sindh
To cite this article
Azhar Memon, Muhammad Atif Ata, Shumaila Shaikh, Haji Khan Khoharo, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Deficiency and Dyslipidemia in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects, International Journal of Chinese Medicine. Vol. 1, No. 3, 2017, pp. 108-112. doi: 10.11648/j.ijcm.20170103.16
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Kashi Z, Saeedian FS, Akha O, Gorgi MAH, Emadi SF, Zakeri H. Vitamin D deficiency prevalence in summer compared to winter in a city with high humidity and a sultry climate. Endokrynologia Polska 2011; 62 (3): 249–51.
Hollick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. NEJM 2007; 357 (3): 266–81.
Maki KC, Rubin MR, Wong LG. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is independently associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome in men and women. J Clin Lipidol 2009; 3 (4): 289–96.
Pittas A, Dawson-Hughes B, Li T, Van Dam R, Willett WC, Manson JE, et al. Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 650-6.
Pournaghshband Z, Amini M. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Isfahani high school students in 2004. Horm Res 2005; 64 (3): 144-8.
Fraser. Vitamin D deficiency in Asia. J Steroid Biochem Mol biol 2004; 89- 90 (1-5): 491-5.
Holick MF. The vitamin D epidemic and its health consequences. J Nutr 2005; 135 (11): 2739S-48S.
Kamball S, Fuleihan Gel-H, Vieth R. Vitamin D: a growing perspective”. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2008; 45 (4): 339-414.
Daly RM, Gagnon C, Lu ZX, Magliano DJ, Dunstan DW, Sikaris KA, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its determinants in Australian adults aged 25 years and older: a national, population-based study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2012; 77 (1): 26-35.
de Boer IH, Kestenbaum B, Shoben AB, Michos ED, Sarnak MJ, Siscovick DS. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels inversely associate with risk for developing coronary artery calcification. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20 (8): 1805–1812, 2009.
Wortsman J, Mtsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, Holick MF. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72 (3): 690–3.
Scragg R, Sowers M, Bell C. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, diabetes, and ethnicity in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabet Care 2004; 27 (12): 2813–8.
Forman JP, Giovannucci E, Holmes MD. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of incident hypertension. Hypertension 2007; 49 (5): 1063–9.
Scragg R, Jackson R, Holdaway IM, Lim T, Beaglehole R. Myocardial infarction is inversely associated with plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels: a community-based study. Int`l J Epidemiol 1990; 19 (3): 559–63.
Poole KES, Loveridge N, Barker PJ. Reduced vitamin D in acute stroke. Stroke 2006; 37 (1): 243–5.
Amarenco P, Bogousslavsky J, Callahan III A. High-dose atorvastatin after stroke or transient ischemic attack. NEJM 2006; 355 (6): 549–59.
Paciaroni M, Hennerici M, Agnelli G, Bogousslavsky J. Statins and stroke prevention. Cerebrovasc Dis 2007; 24 (2-3): 170–82.
Karhap¨a¨a P, Pihlajam¨aki J, P¨orsti I. Diverse associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1, 25-dihydroxy-vitamin D with dyslipidemia. J Intern Med 2010; 268 (6): 604–10.
Auwerx J, Bouillon R, Kesteloot H. Relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, apolipoprotein A-I, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Arterioscl Thrombo 1992; 12 (6): 671–4.
Britov AN, Bystrova MM. New guidelines of the Joint National Committee (USA) on Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of Hypertension: From JNC VI to JNC VII. Kardiologiia 2003; 43 (11): 93–7.
Kuzuya T, Nakagawa S, Satoh J. Report of the Committee on the classification and diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus. Diabet Res Clin Prac 2002; 55 (1): 65–85.
Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults: Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel III). J Am Med Assoc 2001; 285 (19): 2486– 97.
Saposnik G, Caplan LR, Gonzalez LA. Differences in stroke subtypes among natives and Caucasians in Boston and Buenos Aires. Stroke 2000; 31 (10): 2385–9.
Radhakrishnamurthy B. Obesity in Heart Disease. Quill, Columbus, Ohio, USA, 2003: 38–43.
Glader CA, Boman J, Saikku P. The proatherogenic properties of lipoprotein (a) may be enhanced through the formation of circulating immune complexes containing Chlamydia pneumoniae-specific IgG antibodies. Eur Heart J 2000; 21 (8): 639–46.
Chaudhury JR, Maridula KR, Anamika A, Boddu DB, Misra PK, Lingaiah A, et al. Deficiency of 25 hydroxyvitamin D and dyslipidemia in Indian subjects. J Lipids 2013; 623420: 1-7.
Mansoor S, Habib A, Ghani F. Prevalence and significance of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among apparently healthy adults. Clin Bioch 2010; 43(18): 1431–5.
McGillivray G, Skull SA, Davie G. High prevalence of asymptomatic vitamin D and iron deficiency in East African immigrant children and adolescents living in a temperate climate. Arch Dis Childhood 2007; 92 (12): 1088–93.
Aslam M, Masood Z, Sattar A, Qudsia M. Vitamin D Deficiency; Prevalence in Pregnant Women. Professional Med J. 2012; 19 (2): 208- 13.
Khan AH, Iqbal R, Naureen G, Dar FJ, Ahmed FN. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its correlates: results of a community-based study conducted in Karachi, Pakistan. Arch Osteoporos. 2012 Dec; 7 (1- 2): 275-82.
Package insert for vitamin D total (25-Hydroxyvitamin D) quantitative determination. Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Sandhofer Strasse 116, D-68305 Mannheim, Sept 2011.
Bjelakovic G, Gluud LL, Nikolova D, Whitfield K, Wetterslev J, Simonetti RG, Bjelakovic M, Gluud C. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in adults. Cochrane database of systematic reviews 2011; (7): CD007470.
Kamball S, Fuleihan Gel-H, Vieth R. “Vitamin D: a growing perspective”. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2008; 45 (4): 339-414.
Cranney A, Horsley T, O'Donnell S, Weiler H, Puil L, Ooi D, et al. Effectiveness and safety of vitamin D in relation to bone health. Evidence report/technology assessment 2007; 158: 1–235.
Cigolini M, Lagulli MP, Miconi V, Galiotto M, Lombardi S, Gargher G. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations and prevalence of cardiovascular disease among type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Care 2006; 29 (3): 722–4.
Grimes DS, Hindle E, Tyer T. Sunlight, cholesterol and coronary heart disease. Monthly J Assoc Physicians 1996; 89 (8) 579–89.
Sheikh A, Saeed Z, Jafri SAD, Yazdani I, hussain SA. Vitamin D levels in asymptomatic adults-a population survey in Karachi, Pakistan. PLoS ONE 2012; 7 (3): Article IDe33452.
Vupputuri MR, Goswami R, Gupta N, Ray D, Tandon N, Kumar N. Prevalence and functional significance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in Asian Indians. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 83 (6): 1411–9.
Martins D, Wolf M, Pan D. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the United States: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167 (11): 1159–65.
Choi HS, Kim KA, Lim CY. Low serum vitamin D is associated with high risk of diabetes in Korean adults. J Nutr 2011; 141 (8): 1524–8.
Kim DH, Sabour S, Sagar UN, Adams S, Whellan DJ. Prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D in Cardiovascular Diseases (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2004). Am J Cardiol 2008; 102 (11): 1540-4.
Wang TJ, Pencina MJ, Booth SL. Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2008; 117 (4): 503–11.
Antonenko LV, Kholodova ID, Apukhovskaia LI, Voziian PA, Solodova EV, Kvashnina LV. Structuralfunctional changes in plasma lipoproteins during vitamin Ddeficientrickets in children. Ukrainskii biokhimicheskii zhurnal 1990; 62 (3): 54–9.
Rodr´ıguez-Rodr´ıguez E, Ortega RM, Gonz´alez- Rodr´ıguez LG, L´opez- Sobaler AM. Vitamin D deficiency is an independent predictor of elevated triglycerides in Spanishschool children. EuroJ Nutr 2011; 50 (45): 373–8.
Lips P. Vitamin D physiology. Prog Bioph Mol Biol 2006; 92 (1): 4–8.
Botella-Carretero JI, Alvarez-Blasco F, Villafruela JJ, Balsa JA, V´azquez C, Escobar-Morreale HF. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the metabolic syndrome in morbid obesity. Clin Nutr 2007; 26 (5) 573–80.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186