International Journal of Chinese Medicine
Volume 1, Issue 4, October 2017, Pages: 132-136
Received: Nov. 22, 2017;
Accepted: Dec. 4, 2017;
Published: Jan. 3, 2018
Views 286 Downloads 22
Abd Elrahman Mustafa Abd Elrahman Osman, Medical Laboratory Sciences Division, Port Sudan Ahlia College, Port Sudan, Sudan
Shingray Osman Hashim, Medical Laboratory Sciences Division, Port Sudan Ahlia College, Port Sudan, Sudan
Mohammed Abdall Musa, Medical Laboratory Sciences Division, Port Sudan Ahlia College, Port Sudan, Sudan
Omer Mohammed Tahir, Medical Laboratory Sciences Division, Port Sudan Ahlia College, Port Sudan, Sudan
In this review, we show that contaminated money and coins are a public health risk when associated with the simultaneous handling of food, and currency may spread nosocomial infections. The currency circulating in different parts of the world could serve as a vehicle for transmission of drug resistant pathogenic or potential organisms and contamination could be due to currency usage and handling as mint notes were not contaminated. Cotton-based banknotes provide a fibrous surface, which provides ample opportunity for bacterial attachment Therefore, hygienic measures such as thorough hand washing with soap after using currency notes and ATM machine should be observed and the practice of keeping money in shoes and socks and under the carpets should be discouraged. Further, we should avoid the use of saliva during counting of currency notes as well as desist from placing money in the mouth and biting off corners of currency notes. Moreover, ready-to- eat food sellers should be educated to avoid possible cross contamination between currency notes and the food they sell. The most common isolated bacteria were bacillus. klebsellia. E. coli. Staph. aureus,. pseudmonus, Streto. fecales. Enterobacter, Macrococus. This study showed that the most contaminated bill denomination were those of low denomination (1,2 SDG). Notes obtained from Cafeterias and Drivers showed the highest rate of bacterial contamination.
Abd Elrahman Mustafa Abd Elrahman Osman,
Shingray Osman Hashim,
Mohammed Abdall Musa,
Omer Mohammed Tahir,
Aerobic Bacteriological Contamination of Sudanese Currency in Port Sudan, Sudan, International Journal of Chinese Medicine.
Vol. 1, No. 4,
2017, pp. 132-136.
Basch CH, Guerra LA, MacDonald Z, Marte M, Basch CE. Glove changing habits in mobile food vendors in New York City. Journal of community health. 2015 Aug 1;40(4):699-701.
Dulvy NK, Fowler SL, Musick JA, Cavanagh RD, Kyne PM, Harrison LR, Carlson JK, Davidson LN, Fordham SV, Francis MP, Pollock CM. Extinction risk and conservation of the world’s sharks and rays. Elife. 2014 Jan 21;3:e00590.
Boyce JM, Pittet D. Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings: recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. American journal of infection control. 2002 Dec 31;30(8):S1-46.
Pope, T. W. Ender, P. T. Woelk, W. K. Koroscil, M. A. and Koroscil, T. M. (2002). Bacterial Contamination Paper Currency. Southern Medical Journal, 95:1408-1410.
Rossi R, Pastorelli G, Cannata S, Tavaniello S, Maiorano G, Corino C. Effect of long term dietary supplementation with plant extract on carcass characteristics meat quality and oxidative stability in pork. Meat Science. 2013 Nov 30;95(3):542-8.
Nakagawa S, Cuthill IC. Effect size, confidence interval and statistical significance: a practical guide for biologists. Biological Reviews. 2007 Nov 1;82(4):591-605.
J. Keith Struthers, Roger P. Westran. Clinical Bacteriology Textbook-192 Pages-282 Color July 21, 2003 by CRC Press.
Duffie D. Dynamic asset pricing theory. Princeton University Press; 2010 Jan 27.
Santo CE, Morais PV, Grass G. Isolation and characterization of bacteria resistant to metallic copper surfaces. Applied and environmental microbiology. 2010 Mar 1;76(5):1341-8.
Gadsby, P. (1998). Filthy Lucre: bugs, drugs and grime hitch arid on the back of every buck. Discover 19:76-84.
Feglo P, Nkansah M. Bacterial load on Ghanaian currency notes. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2010 Nov 18;4(22):2375-80.
Michael, B. (2002). Handling money and serving ready –to-eat food. Food service technology J, 2, 1-3.
Goktas, P. and Oktay, G. (1992). Bacteriological examination of paper money, Article inTurkish. Mikrobiyol Bul, 26:344-8.
El-Dars, F. M. S. and Hassan, W. M. H. (2005). A preliminary bacterial study of Egyptian paper money. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 15:235-239.
Naimi TS, LeDell KH, Como-Sabetti K, Borchardt SM, Boxrud DJ, Etienne J, Johnson SK, Vandenesch F, Fridkin S, O'boyle C, Danila RN. Comparison of community-and health care–associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Jama. 2003 Dec 10;290(22):2976-84.
Navidinia M, Fallah F, Lajevardi B, Shirdoost M, Jamali J. Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from health care providers in Mofid children hospital. Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 2015 Apr;3(2).
Vriesekoop F, Russell C, Alvarez-Mayorga B, Aidoo K, Yuan Q, Scannell A, Beumer RR, Jiang X, Barro N, Otokunefor K, Smith-Arnold C. Dirty money: an investigation into the hygiene status of some of the world's currencies as obtained from food outlets. Foodborne pathogens and disease. 2010 Dec 1;7(12):1497-502.
Zomorodian K, Bandegani A, Mirhendi H, Pakshir K, Alinejhad N, Fard AP. In vitro susceptibility and trailing growth effect of clinical isolates of Candida species to azole drugs. Jundishapur journal of microbiology. 2016 Feb;9(2).
Abrams, B. I. and Waterman, N. G. Dirty money; Journal of the American Medical Association. 1972.219: 1202-1203.
Basavarajappa, K. G. Sridhar-Rao, P. N. and Suresh, K. (2005). Study of bacterial, fungal and parasitic contamination of currency note in circulation.
Galvani PF, Twitty MT. Effects of intertrial interval and exteroceptive feedback duration on discriminative avoidance acquisition in the gerbil. Animal Learning & Behavior. 1978 Jun 1;6(2):166-73.