Fluoride, Total Dissolved Solid and Electrical Conductivity in Drinking Water Supplies Analyzed in EPHI from April 2017 to December 2018
International Journal of Environmental Chemistry
Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2019, Pages: 43-52
Received: Apr. 17, 2019;
Accepted: Jun. 17, 2019;
Published: Jul. 11, 2019
Views 794 Downloads 168
Tassew Arega, Applied Chemistry, Environmental Public Health Research Team, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Belaynesh Demissie, Applied Chemistry, Environmental Public Health Research Team, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Abel Weldetinsae, Environmental Science, Environmental Public Health Research Team, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Daniel Abera, Environmental Science, Environmental Public Health Research Team, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Melaku Gizaw, Environmental Science, Environmental Public Health Research Team, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Tsegereda Assefa, Environmental Science, Environmental Public Health Research Team, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
This retrospective study is aim to examine the Fluoride, Total dissolved solid and Electrical conductivity in drinking water supplies of Ethiopia. The study used 345 water samples data that collected from seven regions plus two administrative cities of the country, which were tested in Environmental Public Health Chemistry Laboratory at Ethiopian Public Health Institute from April 2017 to December 2018 and from these 226, were from well water, 97 from piped and the remaining 22 were from spring water samples. The results of the water samples analysis indicate that the fluoride concentration, total dissolved solid and electrical conductivity in the water sample varied from 0.0 mg/L to 16.96mg/L, 0.25 mg/L to 3360mg/Land 2.04 µS/cm to 4430µS/cm respectively. Generally in analyzed data, 33.6% (n = 76), 55.8% (n=126) and 54.4% (n=123) of the well water samples, 60.8% (n = 59), 99% (n=96) and 99% (n=96) of the piped water samples and 68.2% (n=15), 91% (n=20) and 91% (n=20) of the spring water samples are below 0.5 mg/L, 500mg/l and 700 µS/cm of fluoride, total dissolved solid and electrical conductivity concentration respectively. on the other hand, 24% (n = 54), 9.3% (n=21) and 8.4% (n=19) of the well water samples, 7.2% (n = 7), 1% (n=1) and 1% (n=1) of the piped water samples and 4.6% (n = 1), 4.6% (n = 1) and 4.6% (n = 1) of the spring water samples had fluoride, total dissolved solid and electrical conductivity concentration higher than WHO and national standards maximum allowable concentration (i.e. 1.5mg/l, 1000mg/L and 1500µS/cm) respectively. According to the result obtained, the water sources require a sustainable corrective action in order to alleviate the effect of fluoride, total dissolved solid and electrical conductivity in human health. Hence, the result of this retrospective study will use as base to health authorities as well as other responsible body for the management of water supply regarding fluoride, total dissolved solid and electrical conductivity.
Fluoride, Total Dissolved Solid and Electrical Conductivity in Drinking Water Supplies Analyzed in EPHI from April 2017 to December 2018, International Journal of Environmental Chemistry.
Vol. 3, No. 1,
2019, pp. 43-52.
Patil, S. B., Veena, Dr., Soraganvi, S., 2017. Geochemical Analysis for Fluoridein Ground waterof Malaprabha River Basin Using GIS. International Journal of Engineering Sciences Research Technology ISSN: 2277-9655. http://www.ijesrt.com/.
Rango, T., et al., 2012. Ground water quality and its health impact: An assessment of dental flourosis in rural inhabitants of the Main Ethiopian Rift.Environ.Int.l43 (2012), 37–47 Duke University, U.S
Bruvold WH and Ongerth HJ (1969). Taste quality of mineralized water. Journal of the American Water Works Association, 61: 170.
Moujabber M E, Samra B B, Darwish T and Atallah T 2006 Comparison of different indicators for groundwater contamination by seawater intrusion on the Lebanese coast Water Resour. Manag. 20 161–180.
Stigter T Y, Ribeiro L and Carvalho D 2006 Application of a groundwater quality index as an assessment and communication tool in agro-environmental policies - Two Portuguese case studies J. Hydrol 327 578-891.
Nonner J C 2015 Introduction to Hydrogeology (London: CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group).
Han D, Kohfahl C, Song X, Xiao G and Yang J 2011 Geochemical and isotopic evidence for palaeo-seawater intrusion into the south coast aquifer of Laizhou Bay, China, Appl. Geochemistry 26 863-883.
Patil P N, Sawant D V, and Deshmukh R N, 2012 Physico-chemical parameters for testing of water – a review, Int. J. Environ. Sci. 3 1194–1207.
Marandi A, Polikarpus M and Jõeleht A 2013 A new approach for describing the relationship between electrical conductivity and major anion concentration in natural waters Appl. Geochemistry 38 103–109.
Daniels W L, Zipper C E, Orndorff Z W, Skousen J, Barton C D, McDonald L M and Beck M A 2016 Predicting total dissolved solids release from central Appalachian coal mine spoils Environ. Pollut. 216 371–379.
Kumar S K, Logeshkumaran A, Magesh N S, Godson P S and Chandrasekar N 2015 Hydrogeochemistry and application of water quality index (WQI) for groundwater quality assessment, Anna Nagar, part of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India Appl. Water Sci. 5 335–343.
Hem D 1985 Study and Interpretation the Chemical of Natural of Characteristics Natural Water 3rd edition USGS Water Supply Paper 2254 66-69 US Govt Printing Office Washington DC.
Appelo C A J and Postma D 2005 Geochemistry, groundwater and pollution (Amsterdam: CRC Oress, Taylor & Francais Group).
Carreira P M, Marques J M and Nunes D 2014 Source of groundwater salinity in coastline aquifers based on environmental isotopes (Portugal): Natural vs. human interference. A review and reinterpretation Appl. Geochemistry 41 163–175.
Rusydi A F, Naily W and Lestiana H 2015 Pencemaran Limbah Domestik Dan Pertanian Terhadap Airtanah Bebas Di Kabupaten Bandung J. Ris. Geol. dan Pertamb. 25 87-97.
WHO 2011 WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality (Geneva: World Health Organization).
Todd D K and Mays L W 2005 Groundwater Hydrology ed B Zobrist (New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
Rhoades J, Kandiah A and Mashali A 1992 the use of saline waters for crop production (Rome: FAO United Nations).
TorA. Removal of fluoridefroman aqueous solution by using montmorillonite. Desalination 2006; 201 (1-3): 267-76.
Isogai A, Nakagaki H, Hanaki M, Tsuboi S, Morita I, Osaka C. Use of fluoridated dentifrice and glucoseretention at the approximal areas of anterior teeth. ASDCJ DentChild2001; 68 (1): 42-6, 12.
Jones S, Burt BA, Petersen PE, LennonMA. The effective use of fluoride in public health. BullWorldHealthOrgan2005; 83 (9): 670-6.
Yadav, Rajdeep, Yadav, R. N., Chandrawa, M. P. S., Sharma, Sanjay K., 2008. Assessment of Fluoride Content, Ph and TDS in.
Kebede, Wolka, Mengistu, Tefera, Taddese, Habitamu, Tolera, Alemayehu, 2014. Impact of land cover change on water quality and stream flow in lake Hawassa watershed of Ethiopia. Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resources, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Agricultural Sciences 5, 647–659. https://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=47641.
Rango, T., et al., 2014. Mobilization of Arsenic and Other Naturally Occurring Contaminants in Ground water of the Main Ethiopian Rift Aquifers. Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Nicholas School of the Environment. Duke University, Durham, United States.
FDRE Ministry of Water Resources, Ethiopian Water Technology Centre, 2008. Butajira Ziway Areas Development Study of Water Quality. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Rafique, T., Naseem, S., Bhanger, Mohamed. I., Tanzil, Bhanger, Usmani, H., 2008. Fluoride ion contamination in the ground water of Mithisubdistrict, the Thar Desert, Pakistan. Springer. Environmental Geology. Int. J. Geosci.56 (2), 317326. Online ISSN 14320495. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00254007-1167-y.
Haimanot, Reda Tekle, Fekadu, A. and Bushra, B. (1987), “Endemic fluorosis in the Ethiopian Rift Valley”, Tropical and Geographical Medicine, vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 209–217.
FDRE, (1995) Availableat: http://www.ethiopia.gov.et/regionalstates (accessed 13 december 2018).
APHA, (1992), Standared Methods for the Examination of water and wastewater. Edited by Greenberg, Arnold E. Clesceri, Lenore S. and Eaton, Andrew D., American Public Health Association, Washington, DC 20005.
WHO, (1971), “WHO guidelines for fluoride in drinking water”.
Guidelines on health aspects of water desalination. ETS/80.4. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1980.
Abdo, A. (1978), “A Survey of Dental Fluorosis in Abossa Elementary School”, Ethiopian Medical Journal, vol. 16, pp. 138.
Olsson, B. (1979), “Dental findings in high-fluoride areas in Ethiopia”, Community Dental and Oral Epidemiology, vol. 7, pp. 51-56.
Kloos, Helmut and Haimanot, Reda Tekle (1993), “Fluorosis in the ecology of health and disease in Ethiopia”.
Rango, T., Kravchenko, J., Atlaw, B., McCornick, Peter G., Jeuland, M., Merola, B. and Vengosh, A. (2012), “Groundwater quality and its health impact”, An assessment of dental fluorosis in rural inhabitants of the Main Ethiopian Rift, ELSEVIER, vol. 43, pp. 37–47.
Chernet, T. and Eshete, G. (1982), “Hydrogeology of the Mekele area”, Ethiopian Institute of Geological survey, Addis Ababa, Memoire no. 2.
Ashley, R. P. and Burley, M. J. (1994), “Controls on the occurrence of fluoride in ground water in the rift valley of Ethiopia”.
Kloos, Helmut and Haimanot, Reda Tekle (1999), “Distribution of fluoride and fluorosis in Ethiopia and Prospective for control”, Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 4, No. 5, pp. 355-364.