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Fluoride, Total Dissolved Solid and Electrical Conductivity in Drinking Water Supplies Analyzed in EPHI from April 2017 to December 2018
International Journal of Environmental Chemistry
Volume 3, Issue 1, June 2019, Pages: 43-52
Received: Apr. 17, 2019; Accepted: Jun. 17, 2019; Published: Jul. 11, 2019
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Authors
Tassew Arega, Applied Chemistry, Environmental Public Health Research Team, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Belaynesh Demissie, Applied Chemistry, Environmental Public Health Research Team, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Abel Weldetinsae, Environmental Science, Environmental Public Health Research Team, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Daniel Abera, Environmental Science, Environmental Public Health Research Team, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Melaku Gizaw, Environmental Science, Environmental Public Health Research Team, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Tsegereda Assefa, Environmental Science, Environmental Public Health Research Team, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
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Abstract
This retrospective study is aim to examine the Fluoride, Total dissolved solid and Electrical conductivity in drinking water supplies of Ethiopia. The study used 345 water samples data that collected from seven regions plus two administrative cities of the country, which were tested in Environmental Public Health Chemistry Laboratory at Ethiopian Public Health Institute from April 2017 to December 2018 and from these 226, were from well water, 97 from piped and the remaining 22 were from spring water samples. The results of the water samples analysis indicate that the fluoride concentration, total dissolved solid and electrical conductivity in the water sample varied from 0.0 mg/L to 16.96mg/L, 0.25 mg/L to 3360mg/Land 2.04 µS/cm to 4430µS/cm respectively. Generally in analyzed data, 33.6% (n = 76), 55.8% (n=126) and 54.4% (n=123) of the well water samples, 60.8% (n = 59), 99% (n=96) and 99% (n=96) of the piped water samples and 68.2% (n=15), 91% (n=20) and 91% (n=20) of the spring water samples are below 0.5 mg/L, 500mg/l and 700 µS/cm of fluoride, total dissolved solid and electrical conductivity concentration respectively. on the other hand, 24% (n = 54), 9.3% (n=21) and 8.4% (n=19) of the well water samples, 7.2% (n = 7), 1% (n=1) and 1% (n=1) of the piped water samples and 4.6% (n = 1), 4.6% (n = 1) and 4.6% (n = 1) of the spring water samples had fluoride, total dissolved solid and electrical conductivity concentration higher than WHO and national standards maximum allowable concentration (i.e. 1.5mg/l, 1000mg/L and 1500µS/cm) respectively. According to the result obtained, the water sources require a sustainable corrective action in order to alleviate the effect of fluoride, total dissolved solid and electrical conductivity in human health. Hence, the result of this retrospective study will use as base to health authorities as well as other responsible body for the management of water supply regarding fluoride, total dissolved solid and electrical conductivity.
Keywords
Total Dissolved Solid, Electrical Conductivity, Fluoride, Piped Water, Well Water, Spring Water, Drinking Water and Ethiopia
To cite this article
Tassew Arega, Belaynesh Demissie, Abel Weldetinsae, Daniel Abera, Melaku Gizaw, Tsegereda Assefa, Fluoride, Total Dissolved Solid and Electrical Conductivity in Drinking Water Supplies Analyzed in EPHI from April 2017 to December 2018, International Journal of Environmental Chemistry. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2019, pp. 43-52. doi: 10.11648/j.ijec.20190301.16
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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