Please enter verification code
Assessment of the Levels of Herbicide Residues in Fish Samples from Alau Dam, Maiduguri, Borno, State, Nigeria
International Journal of Environmental Chemistry
Volume 3, Issue 2, December 2019, Pages: 53-58
Received: Mar. 11, 2019; Accepted: May 15, 2019; Published: Dec. 20, 2019
Views 576      Downloads 115
Joseph Clement Akan, Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Lawan Bukar Inuwa, Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Zaynab Muhammad Chellube, Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Musa Muhammad Mahmud, Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Fanna Inna Abdulrahman, Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
The aim of this study is to determine the levels of atrazine, propanil, alachlor, metolachlor, paraquat, propachlor, butachlor and glysophate in the flesh, liver, intestine and gills of Tilapia zilli, Clarias anguillaris, Synodentis budgetti and Heterotis niloticus from Alau Dam The highest total concentrations of all the studied herbicide residues were detected in Tilapia zillii, follow by Clarias anguillaris, while Synodentis budgetti shows the lowest values. The highest concentrations of all the herbicide residues were detected in the liver of Tilapia zilli and Clarias angullaris while Synodentis budgetti shows the lowest value. Also, the flesh and gills of Tilapia zilli was observed to show the highest levels of all the studied herbicides, while Clarias angullaris shows the lowest value. The values observed for herbicide residues were lower than the WHO and FAO set maximum residue limit (MRL) 0.01 mg/kg and the Acceptable Daily Intake value (ADI) of 0.006 mg/kg which is considered safe for consumption as at the time of the present research work. But their presence in the fish samples also cause for concern, therefore, it is important for relevant agencies to be involve in the management of Alau Dam with respect to herbicide residues.
Fish, Herbicide, Residues, Organs, MRL, ADI
To cite this article
Joseph Clement Akan, Lawan Bukar Inuwa, Zaynab Muhammad Chellube, Musa Muhammad Mahmud, Fanna Inna Abdulrahman, Assessment of the Levels of Herbicide Residues in Fish Samples from Alau Dam, Maiduguri, Borno, State, Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Chemistry. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2019, pp. 53-58. doi: 10.11648/j.ijec.20190302.11
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Hayes, T., Haston, K., Tsui, M., Hoang, A., Haeffele, C. and Vonk, A. (2003). Pesticide Mixtures, Endocrine Disruption and Amphibian Declines. Environmental Health Perspective, 111: 568-575.
Abhilash, P. C. and Singh, N. (2009). Pesticide use and application: an Indian scenario. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 165: 1-12.
Williamson, S., Ball, A. and Pretty, J. (2008). Trends in Pesticide Use and Drivers for Safer Pest Management in Four African Countries. Crop Protection, 27: 1327-1334.
Nilufar, F. (2005). Fate and transport of herbicides in soil in the presence of surfactants in irrigation water. MSc thesis, Canada, November, 1-120.
Ghosh, P. K. and Philip, L. (2006). Environmental Significance of Atrazine in Aqueous Systems and its Removal by Biological Processes, Global Nest Journal, 8 (2): 159-178.
Battaglin, W. and Fairchild, J. (2002). Potential toxicity of pesticides measured in Midwestern streams to aquatic organism. Water Science and Technology, 45 (9): 95-103.
Perez-Ruzafa, A., Navarro, S., Marcos, C., Camara, M. A., Salas, F. and Gutierrez, M. (2000). Presence of Pesticides throughout Trophic Compartments of the Food Web in the Mar Menor Lagoon (SE Spain). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40 (2): 140-15.
Zbytniewski, R. and Buszewski, B. (2002). Sorption of Pesticides in Soil and Compost, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 119 (20): 179-184.
Ezemonye, I. and Tongo. (2009) Lethal and sublethal effects of atrazine to amphibian larvae Jordan. Jounal of Biological Science, 1: 29–36.
Hopenhayn-rich, M. L. and Stump, S. R. (2001). Browning Regional assessment of Atrazine exposure and incidence of breast and ovarian cancers in Kentucky Arch. Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 42: 127–136 L. I. N.
Peighambarzadeh, Z., Safi, S., Shahtaheri, S. J., Javanbakht, M. and Forushani, A. R. (2011) Presence of atrazine in the biological samples of cattle and its consequence adversity in human health. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 4: 12–121.
Zheng, J., Li, R., Zhu, J., Zhang, J., He, J., Li, S. and Jiang, J. (2012) Degradation of the chloroacetamide herbicide butachlor by Catellibacteriumcaeni sp. nov DCA-1T. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 73: 16–22.
Paula, P., Michelangelo, A., Dorothea, M., Irina, S., Bünyamin, T., José, O. and Alberto, B. (2007). Analysis of pesticide residues using the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) pesticide multiresidue method in combination with gas and liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometric detection. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 389 (6): 1697–714.
Kammann, U., landgraff, O. and Steinhart, H. (1992). Cyclic Organochlorines in benthic organisms from the North Sea and the German Bight. Analysis Magazine, 20: 70-73.
He, H., Chen, G., Yu, J., He, J., Huang, X., Li, S., Guo, Q., Yu, T. and Li, H. (2013). Individual and joint toxicity of three chloroacetanilide herbicides to freshwater cladoceran Daphnia carinata. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 90: 344-350.
Hashimoto, Y and Y. Nischituchi (1983). IUPAC Pesticides chemistry, human welfare and the environment. (Eds.: J Miyamoto and PC Kearney), Pergamon Press, New York, 2: 355-358.
Wang, S., Cheng, C. C., Liu, H. and Chiangh, C. (1991). Residue of three herbicides in paddy water and their danger level to carp. Journal of China Agricultural Chemical Sociology, 29 (2): 195-202.
Muley, D. V., Karanjkar, D. M. and Maske, S. V. (2007). Impact of industrial effluents on the biochemical composition of freshwater fish Labeo-rohita. Journal of Environmental Biology, 28 (2): 245-249.
Rajput, V., Singh, S. K., Kirti, A. and Abhishek, (2012). Comparative toxicity of Butachlor, Imidacloprid and Sodium fluoride on protein profile of the walking cat fish Clarias batrachus. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2 (6): 121–124.
Chang, J., Liu, S., Zhou, S., Wang, M. and Zhu, G. (2013). Effects of butachlor on reproduction and hormone levels in adult zebrafish (Daniorerio). Experimental Toxicology and Pathology, 65: 205-209.
Yadav, A., Bhatnagar, A. and Kaur, M. (2013). Aberrations in the Chromosomes of Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) upon exposure to Butachlor. Iranian Journal of Toxicology, 7 (21): 858-865.
Akan, J. C., Mohammed, Z., Jafiya. and Ogugbuja, V. O. (2013). Organochlorine pesticide residues in fish samples from Alau Dam, Borno State, North Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Environmental and Analytical Toxicology, 3: 171.
Suntres, Z. E. (2002). Role of antioxidants in paraquat toxicity. Toxicology, 180 (1): 65-77.
Akan, J. C., Abdulrahman, F. I. and Chellube. Z. M. (2014). Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Fish Samples from Lake Chad, Baga, North Eastern Nigeria International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 5, No. 2.
Risbourg, S. B. and Bastide, J. (1995). Hepatic perturbations induced by a herbicide (atrazine) in juvenile grey mullet Liza ramada (Mugilidae Telostei): an ultra-structural study. Aquatic Toxicology, 31: 217-229.
Tilak, K. S., Satyavardhan, K. and Thathaji, P. B. (2003). Biochemical changes induced by fenvalerate in the freshwater fish Channa punctata. Journals of Ecotoxicology Environmental Monitoring. 13 (4): 261-270.
Tilak, K. S., Veeraiah, K. and Koteswara, Rao, D. (2004). Toxicity and bioaccumulation of chlorpyrifos in Indian carp Catla catla (Ham.), Labeo rohita (Ham.) and Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 3 (5): 933-941.
Codex, Alimentarius Commission (2009). Pesticide residue in food and feed. Extraneous Maximum Residue Limits. Greenwood Publishing group.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186