Please enter verification code
Seasonal Variations in Physicochemical and Nutrient Water Quality of River Tano in Ghana
International Journal of Environmental Chemistry
Volume 4, Issue 1, June 2020, Pages: 1-12
Received: Nov. 15, 2019; Accepted: Nov. 28, 2019; Published: Jan. 6, 2020
Views 603      Downloads 165
Jackson Adiyiah Nyantakyi, Department of Environmental Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana;Environmental Protection Agency, Ahafo Regional Office, Goaso, Ahafo Region, Ghana
Bernard Fei-Baffoe, Department of Environmental Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Osei Akoto, Department of Chemistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Article Tools
Follow on us
Increasing anthropogenic activities within the catchment of River Tano continues to threaten the river water quality but data is limited. Seasonal variations in some physicochemical and nutrients water quality parameters of River Tano were studied between November, 2016 and October, 2017 using electrometric and standard methods. The objective was to assess changes in physicochemical parameters and nutrient concentrations with the season and to generate useful information for water quality managers and policy makers to ameliorate the problem. The results showed significantly higher rainy season values for all the nutrients and the physicochemical parameters studied. The source of River Tano recorded pH levels lower than WHO minimum permissible level for both seasons but got corrected after 7.2 km from the source. The river was also challenged in terms of colour (61.0±4.6 NTU), total phosphorus content (0.376±0.3 mg/L), total suspended solids (69.7±24 mg/L), turbidity (96.2±21 mg/L) and electrical conductivity (252±33 µS/cm) since the levels of these parameters exceeded the permissible levels for WHO. Some physicochemical parameters and nutrients correlated strongly to indicate a possible common source to the water body. Cluster analysis extracted two clusters of the seasonal sampling sites for physicochemical parameters and three clusters for nutrients also confirming their respective possible common sources to the river. It is recommended that the buffer zone policy must be enforced to avert further deterioration of the river water quality. Industries must be compelled to treat their effluent before discharging into water bodies
Freshwater, Physicochemical, Nutrient, Seasonal Variations, River Tano
To cite this article
Jackson Adiyiah Nyantakyi, Bernard Fei-Baffoe, Osei Akoto, Seasonal Variations in Physicochemical and Nutrient Water Quality of River Tano in Ghana, International Journal of Environmental Chemistry. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2020, pp. 1-12. doi: 10.11648/j.ijec.20200401.11
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Kumaresan P, & Nagarajan K (2013) Water quality of river Cauvery in the stretch between Hokenakkal to Mettur reservoir with reference to physico-chemical characteristics compared with water quality standards. Int J of Recent Sci Res. 4 (10), 1657-1660.
Meera D, Kumar S, Sherly MG, & Anand P (2015) A Study on Hydrochemical Characteristics of Fresh Water Lentic Ecosystems in Chavara Industrial Area-South West Coast of India. Int J of Sci and Res Publications, 5 (12), 087-093.
Callisto M (2005) The Effects of Urbanization on Biodiversity and Water Quality in the Rio das Velhas Basin, Brazil. American Fisher. Soc. Symp, 47, 11-22.
Baskar S, Narasimhan N, Swamidass G, Daniel G, Ravichelvan R, Sukumaran M, & Anandaraj T (2013) Seasonal Variations in physico-chemical parameters of river Cauveri, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India. Int J of Res in Biol Sci. 3 (3), 8-11.
Gao X, Zhou F, & Chen CTA (2014) Pollution status of the Bohai Sea: an overview of the environmental quality assessment related tracemetals. Environ. Int., 62, 12-30.
Pan J, Pan JF, & Wang M (2014) Trace elements distribution and eco-logical risk assessment of seawater and sediments from DingziBay, Shandong Peninsula, North China. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 89, 427-434.
WRC (2010) Water Resources Commission: Tano Basin baseline studies report.
WRC (2012) Water Resources Commission: Tano River Basin–Integrated Water Resources Management Plan (IWRMP). 1-43.
GWCL (2015) Ghana Water Company Limited Annual Report, Brong Ahafo Regional Office.
Lugushie JA (2012) Effect of pesticides usage on water quality of the River Tano in the Asunafo South District of Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. M. Sc thesis submitted to the Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
Adiyiah J, Aboagye-Larbi H, & Acheampong, MA (2013) Comparative assessment of the upstream and downstream water qualities of the River Tano in Ghana. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, A2: Formerly part of Environmental Science and Engineering, 283–292.
Awuah GK (2016) Assessment of Heavy Metal concentrations in sediment, water and fish from the Ankobra and Tano River basins In Ghana. MSc thesis submitted to the University of Ghana, Legon. Reg. No. 10109143, 1-58.
Benson NU, Anake WU, Essien JP, Enyong P, & Olajire AA (2017) Distribution and risk assessment of trace metals in Leptodius exarata, surface water and sediments from Douglas Creek in the Qua Iboe Estuary. J of Taibah University For Science, 11 (3), 434-449.
Banunle A, Fei-Baffoe B, & Otchere KG (2018) Determination of the Physico-Chemical Properties and Heavy Metal Status of the Tano River along the Catchment of the Ahafo Mine in the BrongAhafo Region of Ghana. J Environ Anal Toxicol. 8 (3). doi: 10.4172/2161-0525.1000574.
Hulyal SB, & Kaliwal BB (2011) Seasonal Variations in Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Almatti Reservoir of Bijapur district, Karnataka State. International Journal of Environmental Protection, 1 (3), 58-67.
Yadav P, Yadav VK, Yadav AK, & Khare PK (2013) Physico-Chemical Characteristics of a Fresh Water Pond of Orai, U. P., Central India. Octa J Biosci. 1 (2), 177-184.
Didar-Ul SMI, & Azam G (2015) Seasonal variation of physicochemical and toxic properties in three major rivers; Shitalakhya, Buriganga and Turag around Dhaka city, bangladesh. J. Bio. & Env. Sci., 7 (3), 120-131.
Elayaraj B, & Selvaraju M (2015) Seasonal Variations in Physico-Chemical Parameters of Sri Kamatchiamman Temple Pond Chidambaram Taluk, Tamilnadu. J Environ Treat Tech. 3 (2), 126-133.
Signh RP, & Mathur P (2005) Investigation of variation in physicochemical characteristics of a freshwater reservoir of Ajemer city, Rajesthan. Int J Environ Sci. 9, 57-61.
Badu M, Wemegah DD, Boadi NO, & Brown FA (2013) Assessment pf the nutrient load and selected heavy metals in the Owabi Reservoir and its Feeder waters. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 4 (4), 337-343.
Lenoble V, Omanovic D, Garnier C, Mounier S, Donlagic N, Le Poupon C, & Pizeta I (2013) Distribution and chemical speciation of arsenic and heavy metals in highly contaminated waters used for health care purposes (Srebrenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina). Sci. total Environ. 443, 420-428.
Liu CF, Li B, Wang YT, Liu Y, Cai HJ, Wei HF, Li, J (2017) Comprehensive risk assessment and source identification of selected heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Hg, As) in tidal saltmarsh sediments of Shuangtai Estuary, China. Environ. Monit. Assess. 189 (11). doi: 10.1007/s10661-017-6245-3.
Nyantakyi AJ, Akoto O, & Fei-Baffoe B (2019) Seasonal variations in heavy metals in water and sediment samples from River Tano in the Bono, Bono East and Ahafo Regions, Ghana. Environ Monit Assess. 191, 570. doi: 10.1007s/10661-019-7744-1.
Asare-Donkor NK, & Adimado AA (2016) Influence of mining related activities on levels of mercury in water, sediment and fish from the Ankobra and Tano River basins in South Western Ghana. Environ Syst Res, 5 (1).
GMS (2017) Meteorological Service Data. Brong Ahafo Regional Office (personal discussion with Regional Director).
Asare-Donkor, K. N., & Adimado, A. A. (2016). Influence of mining related activities on levels of mercury in water, sediment and fish from the Ankobra and Tano River basins in South Western Ghana. Environ Syst Res, 5 (5). doi: 10.1186/s40068-016-0055-4.
Akoto O, & Adiyiah J (2008) Dissolved nitrogen in drinking water resources of farming communities in Ghana. African J of Environ Sci and Tech, 2 (2), 031-035.
YSI I (2014) YSI 9300 and 9500 Photometers User Manual YSI 9300 and 9500 Direct-Read Photometers User Manual, Brannum lane yellow Springs. Available at:
Wagtech (2015) Wagtech Potalab Instructions Manual, London. Available at: www.
Abdalla A (2016) Impact of Industrial Effluents on the Quality of Onukpawahe Stream, Tema. M. Sc thesis submitted to the Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, Reg. No. PG 2224214.
Mondol MN, Chamon AS, Faiz B, & Elahi SF (2011) Seasonal variation of heavy metal concentrations in Water and plant samples around Tejgaon industrial Area of Bangladesh. J. Bangladesh Acad Sci. 35 (1), 19-41.
APHA (2008) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, (20th Ed.) American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
Signh H, Pandey R, Singh SK, & Shukla DN (2017) Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the sediment of River Ghaghara, a major tributary of the River Ganga in Northern India. Appl Water Sci. 7, 4133-4149. doi: 10.1007/s13201-017-0572-y.
Salam MA, Paul, SC, Shaari FI, Rak AE, Ahmad RB, & Kadir WR (2019) Geostatistical Distribution and Contamination status of heavy metals in the sediment of Perk River, Malaysia. Hydrol. 6 (30), 1-19. doi: 10.3390/hydrology6020030.
Abdar MR (2013). Physico-chemical characteristics and phytoplankton of Morna lake, Shirala (M. S.) India. Biolife., 1, 1-7.
Dotse D (2008) A study of sedimentation management systems at Newmont Ghana Gold Limited. M. Sc thesis submitted to the Department of Material Engineering, College of Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
Hagai M (2018) Relationship between Land Cover Changes with Water Quantity in Lake Victoria—A Case Study of Mara River Basin in Tanzania. J of Environ Sci and Eng B, 28.
Pullanikkatil D, Palamuleni LG, & Ruhilga TM (2015) Impact of land use on water quality in the Linkangala catchment, Southern Malawi. African J of Aqua Sci. 40 (3), 277-286. doi: 10.2989/16085914.2015.10777777.
Ramesh N (2014) Assessment of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Bellandur Lake, Bangalore, India. Int J of Innovat Res in Sci. Eng and Tech. 3.
Wang Q, Zhang Q, Wu Y, & Wang XC (2017) Physicochemical conditions and properties of particles in urban runoff and rivers: Implications for runoff pollution. Chem. 173, 318-325.
Yen TP, & Rohasliney H (2013) Status of water quality subject to sand mining in the Kelantan River, Kelantan. Tropical Life Sciences Research, 24, 19-34.
Satpathy KK, Mohanty AK, Natesan U, Prasad MVR, & Sarkar SK (2010) Seasonal variation in physicochemical properties of Coastal walters of Kalpakkam, east coast of India with special emphasis on nutrients. Environ Monit Assess. 164 (1-4), 153-171. doi: 10.1007/s10661-009-0882-0.
Zheng I, Liu Z, Yan Z, Zhang Y, Yi X, Zhang J, Zhu Y (2017) pH-dependent ecological risk assessment of pentachlorophenol in Taihu Lake and Liaohe river. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 135, 216-224.
Kadlec RH, & Knight RL (1996) Treatment wetlands.. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Linh HNK (2013) The effect of riparian zones on nitrate removal by denitrification at the river basin scale. Ph. D Thesis submitted to UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands,, pp. 37.
WHO (2008) Guidelines for Drinking. World Health Organization, Water Quality, 2nd Edition, Geneva.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186