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A Review on Treatment Efficiency of Pharmaceutical Effluents Using Natural Coagulants
International Journal of Environmental Chemistry
Volume 4, Issue 2, December 2020, Pages: 54-61
Received: May 20, 2020; Accepted: Jun. 4, 2020; Published: Nov. 19, 2020
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Authors
Ifeoma Maryrose Odika, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Chinenye Gloria Nwansiobi, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Njideka Veronica Nwankwo, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Chiagozie Michael Ekwunife, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Uchechukwu Michael Onuoha, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
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Abstract
Pharmaceutical effluents are wastes generated by pharmaceutical industries during the process of drug production. Pharmaceutical industry effluent is hazardous in nature due to its components such as toxic metals and active pharmaceutical ingredients and therefore should be treated before it is discharged into any water body or on to soil. But studies have shown that in most developing countries like Nigeria, industries dispose their effluents without treatment. The pharmaceutical effluents can be treated using inorganic or natural coagulants. This paper reviewed some studies on the treatment of pharmaceutical effluents using natural coagulants which are low-cost, under-utilized, economic friendly and readily available. The coagulants reviewed include Moringa oleifera, Citrullus lanatus (Seed of watermelon), Treculia africana (African bread fruit), Phoenix dactylifera (Date), Zea mays (Corn or maize), Banana peels, Sesamum indicum (Beniseed). The studies were critically reviewed with respect to the type of natural coagulant used, method of application to the effluents and result obtained. The results from the studies reviewed revealed that the treatment efficiency was maximally achieved in each case when the natural coagulants were used in combined form (either with another natural coagulant or inorganic coagulant) in appropriate ratios. Treatment efficieny of pharmaceutical effluents is obtained by using combined natural coagulant.
Keywords
Pharmaceutical Effluent, Natural Coagulant, Zea mays, Sesamum indicum
To cite this article
Ifeoma Maryrose Odika, Chinenye Gloria Nwansiobi, Njideka Veronica Nwankwo, Chiagozie Michael Ekwunife, Uchechukwu Michael Onuoha, A Review on Treatment Efficiency of Pharmaceutical Effluents Using Natural Coagulants, International Journal of Environmental Chemistry. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2020, pp. 54-61. doi: 10.11648/j.ijec.20200402.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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