Recycling of Kotah Stone Quarry Waste and Manufacturing Normal Portland Cement: A Conceptual Technology of Future
Journal of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 2, December 2019, Pages: 19-24
Received: Jun. 16, 2019; Accepted: Sep. 26, 2019; Published: Oct. 31, 2019
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Satish Chand Agarwal, Associated Stone Industries (Kotah) Ltd., Kota, India
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The State of Rajasthan in India, has abundant reserves of Flaggy Limestone which yields Kotah Stone. It is very popular and widely known as best and most economical flaggy stone within country and abroad. The deposit of Kotah Stone is generally confined to 15mtr. in thickness. It is overlaid by a zone of non splittable limestone waste layers. This waste zone has increased from ‘0’ in 1945 to present 40 – 45mtr, oue to dipping rocks @ 7 – 15%. To a general estimate, over the years of mining some 550Mill. Ton of such waste has piled up in entire belt in form of man-made mountains. This has caused serious environmental problem beside economic hazard arising from its disposal and management. Beside reduction, recycling and utilization of quarry waste is perhaps the only solution for industrial survival. A serious effort has been made to utilize by recycling this waste for manufacturing normal Portland Cement. This waste having low in CaO 38% and high in Silica 23% needed beneficiation. Exhaustive test and studies on wet beneficiation have established that it is technically feasible to enrich the CaO to 44% and reduce Silica to 12-33%, a feed product most suitable for manufacture of Ordinary Portland Cement of 53% grade. ACC Madukkarai cement plant had conducted beneficiation studies in 2004-17 on its low grade limestone containing 43℅ CaO and 18℅Silica to use the concentrate as additive to normal raw material to cement plant. Present paper highlights the various activities of the project in manufacturing cement using concentrate after beneficiation of much low grade limestone. The technique suggested and cost of beneficiation vis-vis environmental merits of the project have been discussed.
Kotah Stone, Quarry Waste, Recycling, Grinding, Beneficiation, Clinker, Portland Cement
To cite this article
Satish Chand Agarwal, Recycling of Kotah Stone Quarry Waste and Manufacturing Normal Portland Cement: A Conceptual Technology of Future, Journal of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Engineering. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2019, pp. 19-24. doi: 10.11648/j.jcebe.20190302.12
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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