Synthesis of K3 [Fe (C2O4)3]-kaolin Nanocomposite and Degradation of Leachate by K3 [Fe (C2O4)3]-kaolin Nanocomposite
Journal of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Engineering
Volume 4, Issue 1, June 2020, Pages: 11-24
Received: Dec. 21, 2019; Accepted: Jan. 7, 2020; Published: May 28, 2020
Views 122      Downloads 46
Osu Charles Ikenna, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University Of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Okeacha Ezinne Grace, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University Of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Iwuoha Godson Ndubuisi, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University Of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
K3 [Fe (C2O4)3]-Kaolin Nano composite was synthesized by impregnating or intercalation of K3 [Fe (C2O4)3] into kaolin. The Nano composite was used to degrade landfill leachate by oxidation/reduction of organic and inorganic substances present in the landfill leachate. Landfill leachate 1 and 3 had the highest concentration of characteristics of contaminants (COD, BOD5, TDS, TSS, Organic - N, NH3 - N, Cr, Pb and Cd) than landfill leachate 2. In landfill 1, the percentage reduction of Cd, Pb, COD, NH3-N, Cr using kaolin were 88.69, 76.32, 65.6, 46.7, and 35.56 respectively which were less than the values obtained when K3 [Fe (C2O4)3]-Kaolin Nano composite was used for the degradation of Cd, Pb, COD, NH3-N, and Cr with values 92.4, 83.5, 91.5, 92.4, and 81.00 respectively. In landfill 2 and 3, K3 [Fe (C2O4)3]-Kaolin Nano composite demonstrated higher percentage reduction than that of the unmodified kaolin. These results showed that increasing the pH and the temperature of the solution (leachate), increased the percentage reduction of the contaminants such that the optimum temperature for the reduction of the various characteristics was at 100°C while that of pH was at 10.5 beyond this value no further significance reduction was observed therefore, at the point the reaction was said to be completed. The change in enthalpy (ΔH) value of the reaction processes were all positives which denoted that the reaction process was endothermic that is, heat was absorbed into the surrounding. The correlation factor, R2 for the three leachate samples showed less proximity and high remoteness from unity which also confirmed that the reduction process of COD, Pb and Cd using kaolin impregnated with ferrioxalate was temperature dependent reaction (Walter and Geoffrey, 1992). The change in entropy of the reaction (ΔS) is highly temperature dependent too because it is positive. The values of ΔG for the three landfill leachate samples were positives.
Nano Compound, Thermodynamics, Oxidation, Kaolin, Ferrioxalate
To cite this article
Osu Charles Ikenna, Okeacha Ezinne Grace, Iwuoha Godson Ndubuisi, Synthesis of K3 [Fe (C2O4)3]-kaolin Nanocomposite and Degradation of Leachate by K3 [Fe (C2O4)3]-kaolin Nanocomposite, Journal of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Engineering. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2020, pp. 11-24. doi: 10.11648/j.jcebe.20200401.12
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ali, M. A. B., Rakib, M., Laborie, S., Viers, P. H. & Durand, G. (2004). Coupling of Bipolar Membrane Electrodialysis and Ammonia Stripping for direct Treatment of Wastewater Containing Ammonium Nitrate. Journal of Member Science, 244, 89–96.
Reinhart, D. R. & Townsend, T. G. (1998) Landfill Bioreactor Design and Operation. Ist Edition. Lewis Publisher, Boca Raton, Florida, Pp. 189.
Lema, J. M., Mendez, R. & Blazquez, R. (1988). Characteristic of Landfill Leachates and Alternatives for their Treatment: A Review. Water Air Soil Pollution., 40: 223–250.
Baig, S., Coulomb, I., Courant, P. & Liechti, P. (1999) Treatment of Landfill Leachates: Lapeyrouse and Satrod Case Studies. Ozone Science and Engineering, 21 (1), 1–22.
Silva, A. C., Dezotti, M. & Santanna, G. L. (2003) Treatment and Detoxification of a Sanitary Landfill Leachate. Chemosphere, 55: 207–214.
Badmus, B. S. & Olatinsu, O. B. (2009). Geophysical Evaluation and Chemical Analysis of Kaolin Clay Deposit of Lakiri Village, Southwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 4 (10), 592–606.
Onu, M. A., Joseph, O. Okafor, Abdusalami, S., Kovo & Yahaya, S. Mohammed (2015). Development of Optimum Conditions for Modification of Kpautagi Clay for Application in Peteroleum Refinery Waste water Treatment. Leonardo Electronic Journal of practices and Technologies, 27: 131-137.
Meshram, S. Limaye, R., Ghodke, S., Nigam, S., Sonawane, S., & Chikate, R. (2011). Methodology of Adsorbent Modifications. Chemical Engineering Journal, 172: 1008-1015.
Sonawane, G. H., Sandip, P. P., Villas, K. M & Vinod, S. S. (2017). Kinetics of Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue by ZnO - bentonite Composite. Iranian chemical communication, 5: 417-428.
Shabiimam, M. A. & Dikshit, A. K. (2012). Treatment of Municipal Landfill Leachate by Oxidants. American Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2 (2): 1-5.
Stansley, W., L. Widjeskog, & Roscoe, D. E. (1992). Lead and mobility in surface water at trap and skeet ranges. Bull. Environmental contaminants Toxicology. 49: 640-647.
Scrudata, R. J., and Estes. E. L. (1975). Clay-lead sorption relations. Environmental Geology. 1: 167-170.
Korte, P. E., J. Skopp, W. H. Fuller, E. E. Niebla, and B. A. Aleshi. (1976). Trace Element Movement in Soils, Influence of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties. Journal of Soil science. 22 (6): 350-359.
Balkaya, N. & Cesur, H. (2008). Adsorption of Cadmium from aqueous solution by Phosphogypsum. Journal of Chemical Engineering Elsevier, 140 (1-3), 247-254.
Saikia, N. & Kojima, T. (2011). Behaviours of MeCl2 (Me: Pb and Cd) during thermal treatment of Kaolin-lime mixture. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 5 (10), 778-785.
Van't Hoff, J. H. (1898). Lectures on Theorical and Physical Chemistry, Edward Arnold, London.
Walter, E. T. & Geoffrey, P. D. (1992). Effect of Temperature on the Creatine Kinase Equilibrium. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 267 (20): 14084-14093.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186