Hazard Indices and Age Group Parameters of Powder Milk Consumed in Iraq
Higher Education Research
Volume 2, Issue 5, October 2017, Pages: 117-122
Received: Aug. 27, 2017;
Accepted: Sep. 9, 2017;
Published: Nov. 17, 2017
Views 1327 Downloads 50
Hassan Abid-Al Ammer, Department of Physics, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
Nada Farhan Kadhim, Department of Physics, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
Mahmood Salim Karim, Department of Physics, College of Education, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
Ali Abdulwahab Ridha, Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Mustansiriyah, Baghdad, Iraq
Follow on us
The specific activities of natural and artificial radionuclides in powder milk consumed by adult and infant were measured using gamma ray spectroscopy (HPGe detector). The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), internal hazard index (Hin) were also calculated together with the parameters dependent on the age group such as; annual effective dose from ingested foods (Eing), and excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR). Five radionuclides (212Pb, 214Pb, 228Ac, 40K, 137Cs) were detected in the studied samples, with low specific activates ranged from (B. D. L) to (5.44±2.33, 2.37±1.53, 1.85±1.36, 284.87±16.87, 3.99±1.99) Bq/kg respectively, besides some samples didn’t have any radionuclide or have one only. All the calculated values are less than the average worldwide, except the annual effective dose from ingested foods. In general, the results showed good agreement with the previous studies. This is meant that the analyzed milk is safe for human consumption because their levels of radioactivity are less than the global limits.
Milk, Radionuclides, Hazard Indices, Specific Activity, Age Group, HPGe Detector
To cite this article
Hassan Abid-Al Ammer,
Nada Farhan Kadhim,
Mahmood Salim Karim,
Ali Abdulwahab Ridha,
Hazard Indices and Age Group Parameters of Powder Milk Consumed in Iraq, Higher Education Research.
Vol. 2, No. 5,
2017, pp. 117-122.
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Marth E. H., "Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products", Fourteenth Edition, published by American Public Health Association, Washington (1978).
Vosniakos F. K., Moumtzi A., Kesidou A., Ganatsios S., Bizopoulos A., and Karakoltsidis P. A., "Transfer of 131I and 137Cs from cow milk to cheese and other products", Aust. J. Dairy Technol, Vol. 44, pp. 44-46 (1989).
Buldini. P. L., Cavalli. S., and Sharma. J. L., "Matrix removal for the ion chromatographic determination of some trace elements in milk", Microchem Journal, Vol. 72, pp. 277–284 (2002).
Quindos. L. S., Fenandez. P. L. & Soto. J.,‖ Natural radioactivity in Spanish soil", Health Physics, Vol. 66, 194-200 (1994).
Vera Tome. F., BlancoRodriguez M. P., Lozano. J. C.,"Soil-to-Plant transfer factor for natural radionuclides and stable element in medoterranean area", J. Environ. Radioact., Vol. 65, pp. 161–175 (2003).
J. H. Al-Zahrani, " Natural Radioactivity and Heavy Metals in Milk Consumed in Saudi Arabia and Population Dose Rate Estimates", Life Science Journal, Vol. 9 (2), pp. 651-656 (2012).
IAEA. International Atomic Energy Agency, " measurement of Radiation in Food and the Environment", Technical Reports Series 295, Vinna (1989).
Jose A., Jorge J., Cleomacio M., Sueldo V. and Romilton dos S., "Analysis of the 40K Levels in Soil using Gamma Spectrometry". Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology Journal, Vol. 48, pp. 221-228 (2005).
Mahur A. K., Kumer R., Sonkawade R. G., Sengupta D., and Prasad R.," Measurements of Natural Radioactivity and Radon Exhalation Rate from Rock Samples of Jaduguda Uranium Mines and its Radiological Implications", Nucl Instrum Method Phys Res, Vol. 266, pp. 1591-1597 (2008).
Ali A. A., Hussain H. A., Lubna A. A.," Determination of natural radiation contamination for some types of legumes available in the Iraqi markets", Advance in Applied Science Research, Vol. 4 (5), pp. 250-254 (2013).
Jibiri N. N. and Okusanya A. A., "Radionuclide contents in food products from domesticand imported sources in Nigeria", J. Radiol. Pro, Vol. 28, pp. 405-413 (2008).
Al-Ghamdi A. H, "Activity Concentrations and Mean Annual Effective Dose of Spices Food Consumed by Inhabitants of Saudi Arabia", Journal of American Science, Vol. 10 (11), pp. 164-168 (2014).
UNSCEAR) "United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation, Report to the General Assembly. Annex B: Exposures from Natural Radiation Sources", New York (2000).
Kant, Gupta, Kumari, Gupta, Garg,"Natural radioactivity in Indian vegetation samples", International Journal of Radiation Research, Vol. 13 (2), pp. 143-150 (2015).