A Comparative Analysis of Physicochemical Composition of Selected Spring Water in the Bale Eco-region, South East Ethiopia
International Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 2, December 2019, Pages: 36-40
Received: Jul. 2, 2019;
Accepted: Jul. 26, 2019;
Published: Dec. 23, 2019
Views 753 Downloads 152
Getachew Meka, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Alemayehu Wudneh, Department of Natural Resource Management, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Madda Walabu University, Robe, Ethiopia
Spring water chemical behaviors in various locations and environmental degradation are being among the most recent dynamic issues. In this study, spring water sources of the Rira and Burkitu streams of remote rural areas were considered as holy and healthy water by the local communities. However, the quality of the water is not yet analyzed and still very low attentions are paid by the concerned governmental stakeholders towards characterizing the mineral constituents in order to confirm the existing perceptions. This study focused on comparing water quality of two springs exists in the two extreme altitudinal difference (from upper mountain (Rira spring) and lower altitude (Burkitu spring)) flowing through undisturbed ecosystem in the Bale Ecoregion. Water samples were taken following depth integrated composite samples from the two streams in 2015. The samples were taken to Ethiopian Public Health Organization, Addis Ababa. The spring water samples’ physicochemical characteristics were compared by one way ANOVA and a piper diagram and evaluated against WHO drinking water quality standards. Laboratory investigations revealed that “Burkitu” spring water has a special physique that makes it advantageous water. Turbidity, PO4, F-, and NH4+1 content of Rira and Burkitu spring water were 0.11 and 1.06 (NTU), 0.08 and 0.1 (mg/L), 0.43 and 0.42 (mg/l) 0.19 and 0.18 (mg/l) but not significantly different at P value less than 0.05 in that order respectively. Significantly different parameters at P value less than 0.01 were filterable residue at 180°C, CaCO3, Hardness, silica, Na+, K+, Ca, Mg, NO3, and HCO3 content of Rira and Burkitu springs were 56 and 222, 10 and 180, 36 and 188, 28.18 and 33.51, 6.1 and 8.2, 0.6 and 1.3, 11.22 and 54.51, 1.95 and 12.65, 6.17 and 1.19, 12.2 and 219.6 in that order respectively. pH and NO2 of the springs were significantly different at P value less than 0.05. The most dominant hydro chemical facies explaining the quality were Ca and Na in which Ca2+> Na+. Moreover, the water fit Ethiopian drinking water standard saving the lives of those rural communities with low and cheap water treatment.
A Comparative Analysis of Physicochemical Composition of Selected Spring Water in the Bale Eco-region, South East Ethiopia, International Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2019, pp. 36-40.
B. State, M. B. Nkamare, A. N. Ofili, A. J. Adeleke, and M. B. Nkamare, “Physico-chemical and microbiological assessment of borehole water in,” vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 2549–2552, 2012.
A. A. Bullock et al., “Chapter 1 Getting out of the box – linking water to decisions for sustainable development,” pp. 3–23.
W. P. Parte and H. Editorchief, of Environmental Chemistry Editor-in-Chief.
P. H. Gleick, “The human right to water,” Water Policy, vol. 1, no. April 2011, pp. 487–503, 1999.
A. S. Ademe and M. Alemayehu, “Intellectual Properties Rights : Open Access Source and Determinants of Water Pollution in Ethiopia : Distributed Lag Modeling Approach,” vol. 2, no. 2, 2014.
F. D. Vall and C. J. Faur, “No Title,” pp. 77–79.
A. Iii and A. P. Nap, “THE FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AUTHORITY THE 3 rd NATIONAL REPORT ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE UNCCD / NAP IN ETHIOPIA,” no. February, 2004.
D. A. Groups et al., “Holy water qualty and physichochemical characterstics”, Anal. methods, 2002.
J. Scanlon and A. Cassar, Water as a Human Right ? Water as a Human Right ?, no. 51.
T. Facon, J. Margat, T. Le-huu, and J. M. Trondalen, “Key messages,” pp. 150–159.
B. Eco-region, “Watershed Development Options in the,” no. 2.
F. Africa, “Bale Mountains Eco-region Reduction of Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD +) Project-,” 2014.
E. P. Authority, “Groundwater sampling guidelines,” no. April, 2000.
D. H. Consultants, “wells for water quality analysis,” no. May, 1999.
Perkin Elmer Coorporation, “Analytical Methods for Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy,” Anal. Methods, p. 216, 1996.
W. E. Federation, “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater Part 1000 Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” 1999.
C. C. Zhang, Fundamentals of Environmental Sampling and Analysis.
U.S. Agency for International Development, “Water and development,” pp. 1–33, 2013.
D. Chapman, “Water Quality Assessments - A Guide to Use of Biota, Sediments and Water in Environmental Monitoring - Second Edition Edited by,” 1996.
“National Drinking Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Strategy May 2011 Addis Ababa,” no. May, 2011.
H. G. Gorchev and G. Ozolins, “WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality.,” WHO Chron., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 104–108, 2011.
F. Addendum and T. O. Third, “Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality,” vol. 1.
F. Goreth, Canadian holy water quality standards, Table of Contents, 1996.
M. Of and W. Resources, “ETHIOPIAN GUIDELINES SPECIFICATION FOR,” no. September, 2002.
G. Survey, “Ground Water and the Rural Homeowner.”
D. Hem, “Study and Interpretation the Chemical of Natural of Characteristics Water,” Text, vol. 2254, no. 2254, p. 263, 1985.