International Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 1, June 2020, Pages: 1-6
Received: Sep. 4, 2019;
Accepted: Dec. 23, 2019;
Published: Jan. 7, 2020
Views 732 Downloads 153
Osianemo Andrew Omole, Department of Building, Faculty of Environmental Design, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Ikem Mbamali, Department of Building, Faculty of Environmental Design, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Dalhatu Abdulsalam, Department of Building, Faculty of Environmental Design, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Good indoor air quality in eateries is essential for ensuring healthy and comfortable workplace environment and enhancing visiting customer comfort and eatery personnel output and productivity. This study assessed the indoor air quality (IAQ) of selected Eateries in Zaria metropolis with a view to identifying the sources of pollutants and verifying their acceptability in relation with existing guidelines. The study relates to the concentration levels of specific indoor air quality indicators; temperature, relative humidity, carbon mono oxide, carbon dioxide, total volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde, particulate matter 2.5 and particulate matter 10. It was carried out by means of field survey, involving measurements and use of a well-structured checklist for relevant data collection on 13 eateries in Zaria metropolis. Two indoor locations (Dinning and Kitchen) were selected per eatery and four air samples collected at each, over a space of 15minutes during the harmattan season. Findings showed that the highest mean level of Temp (30.9°C), RH (49.2%), CO (21ppm), CO2 (890ppm), TVOC (0.237 mg/m3), HCHO (0.170mg/m3), PM2.5 (60µg/m3) and PM10 (62.9µg/m3) were found in the eateries F and M. Results from the inferential statistics showed significant differences (p<0.05) in dinning and kitchen for CO and PM2 respectively. Also, significant differences were seen in the four sampling sessions for all pollutants at different Eateries. In addition, Eateries should provide functioning exhaust, ventilation, and air conditioning facilities and air cleaning systems must be maintained and its parts must be inspected and cleaned based on the specifications approved by ASHRAE standard 62.
Osianemo Andrew Omole,
Comparison of Indoor Air Quality in Eateries Within Zaria Metropolis, International Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences.
Vol. 4, No. 1,
2020, pp. 1-6.
Quarcoo, S., Kwame, J., Ofosu, F., & Aboh, I. (2012). Particulate Matter and Black Carbon Concentration Levels in Ashaiman. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences (4), 20-25.
National Health and Medical Research Council, N. (1996). Definition of indoor air. Retrieved February 2018, from www.nhmrc.gov.au.
Gobo, A., Ubong, I., Ede, P., & Inyang, I. (2009). Indoor and outdoor air quality in selected restaurants and canteens in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria. African Journal Environmental Pollution Health, 7 (1), 1-6.
WHO. (2016). WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants. Copenhagen: WHO.
Santosh, K. (2010). Ecology and Environmental Studies. Khan Publishers.
Joana, M., Ana. Mendes, & Helder, S. (2012). Evaluation of the Indoor Air Quality in Restaurants before and After a Smoking Ban in Portugal. Indoor and Built Environment, 323-331.
Zhang, Q., Gangupomu, R., Ramirez, D., & Zhu, Y. (2010). Measurement of ultrafine particles and other air pollutants emitted by cooking activities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7 (4), 1744-1759.
Zhao, Y., Li, A., Gao, R., Tao, P., & Shen, J. (2014). Measurement of temperature, relative humidity and concentrations of CO, CO2 and TVOC during cooking typical Chinese dishes. Energy and Buildings, 69 (7), 544-561.
Juntarawijit, C., & Juntarawijit, Y. (2017). Cooking smoke and respiratory symptoms of restaurant workers in Thailand. BMC Pulmonary Medicine, 17 (5), 41-51.
Arashidani, K., Nivukoski, U., Inoue, W., Otani, H., Kunugita, N., Kim, H., Uchiyama, I. (2005). Investigation of Air Pollution in Restaurants and of Employees' Personal Exposure Level. Indoor Air, 2718-2722.
Zhang, Y. (2005). Indoor Air Quality Engineering. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
Norhidayah, A., Chia-Kuang, L., Azhar, M., & Nurulwahida, S. (2013). Indoor Air Quality and Sick Building Syndrome in Three Selected Buildings. Procedia Engineering, 53 (2010), 93-98.
Kike-Parsis, A. (2018). Indoor air quality. Retrieved from Part 1- What is it.: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/494503_4.
ASHRAE. (2007). Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
EPA. (2016). Introduction to Indoor Air Quality. Retrieved February 2018, from https://www.epa.gov/indoor-air-quality-iaq/introduction-indoor-air-quality.
Pecingina, I.-R., & Popa, R.-G. (2014). Air Pollutants and the effects of on the human body. Annal of "Constantin Brancusi" University of Tarju-Jui. Engineering series, 213-218.
Indoor Environmental Quality. (2011). Retrieved 5 10, 2018, from http://www. sftool.gov/learn/about/1/indoor-environmental-quality-ieq.
Stanley, A., Mbamali, I., Zubairu, I., Bustani, S., Andrew, S., & Joshua, I. (2010). Electric Power Generator Noise Level Characterization and Impact on Selected Commercial Areas of Zaria and Kaduna Nigeria, International Postgraduate Conference on Infrastructure and Environment. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
Bake, D. (2013). 7 Common Indoor AIr Pollutants. US Green.
U. S. EPA. (2015). Sources of indoor air pollution-biological pollutants. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency.
OSHA. (2011). Indoor air quality in commercial and institution buildings. Retrieved from US department of labour, occupational safety and health administration: http:/www.osha.gov.
Shun, C., Li, W.-M., & Lo, Y. (2001). Indoor air quality at restaurants with different styles of cooking in metropolitan Hong Kong. The Science of the Total Environment, 181-193.
Marks, S. (2002). Air quality measurements in commercial kitchens. United Kingdom: HSE.
Yusri, Y., Mardiana, I., & Norli, I. (2014). Indoor Air Quality of Typical Malaysian Open-air Restaurants. Environment and Pollution, 3.
Mahmoud, E., & Wasim, J. (2018). Study of indoor air quality level in various restaurants in Saudi Arabia. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, 37 (5), 1713-1721. doi: 10.1002/ep.12859.
Shirin, H., & Mahalakshmi, R. (2016). Indoor Air Quality in Commercial Kitchens. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 5 (10), 1337-1340.
Isler, A., & Karaosmanoglu, F. (2008, June 16-17). Traditional cooking fuels, ovens, & stoves in Turkey. Thirty-first IAEE International Conference, 20 (4), 54-67.
Kim, K., Pandey, S., Kabir, E., & Susaya, J. (2011). The modern paradox of unregulated cooking activities and indoor air quality. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 195 (5), 1-10.
Udochukwu, U., Inetianbor, J., Omorotionmwan, F., & Okpuruka, N. (2016). Effects of High Customer Patronage on the Indoor Air Quality of Restaurants in Lokoja Metropolis and Its Public Health Impact. American Journal of Microbiological Research, 4, 51-55.
Rahman, M., & Kim, K. (2012). Release of offensive odorants from the combustion of barbecue charcoals. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 10 (3), 233-242.
ASHRAE 55. (2010). Thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Inc.
Nazaroff, W. (2004). Indoor particle dynamics. Indoor Air, 14 (7), 175-183.