The Role of Time in Cosmic Expansion
American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2018, Pages: 9-20
Received: Jan. 22, 2018; Accepted: Feb. 5, 2018; Published: Mar. 2, 2018
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Author
Naser Mostaghel, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, USA
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Abstract
By treating time as an independent variable free of space-time the role of time in cosmic expansion is clarified. We show that this treatment of time is consistent with General Relativity, and addresses the quandaries of dark or vacuum energy. We consider the current of time to be composed of many time waves. As the current flows, the number of its waves keeps increasing. It is shown that the cumulative sum of the periods of these waves represents the stretching-time, the redshift, Z represents the stretching velocity, and the quantity Z2/t represents the stretching acceleration of the stretching-time. By isolating time from space-time we find a simple equation which is developed based only on time and its kinematics. The validity of this equation is confirmed first through the conformity of its predictions with Einstein’s three predictions, namely the precession of Mercury’s orbit, the bending of light by the sun’s gravity, and the gravitational time dilation. Second, its validity is further confirmed through its consistency with three different sets of observational data as well as with the recent LIGO/Virgo gravitational waves measurement. It is shown that the flow of stretching-time is propelled by the energy released at the big bang. Further, the Hubble constant is estimated analytically. Also a possible source and the quantity of what is called dark energy are identified. It is concluded that the time model may clear the way to a quantum mechanical description of the cosmos.
Keywords
Cosmic Expansion, Dark Energy, Gravitation, Redshift, Time
To cite this article
Naser Mostaghel, The Role of Time in Cosmic Expansion, American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2018, pp. 9-20. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20180601.12
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Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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