The Role of Time in Cosmic Expansion
American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2018, Pages: 9-20
Received: Jan. 22, 2018; Accepted: Feb. 5, 2018; Published: Mar. 2, 2018
Views 577      Downloads 87
Naser Mostaghel, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, USA
Article Tools
Follow on us
By treating time as an independent variable free of space-time the role of time in cosmic expansion is clarified. We show that this treatment of time is consistent with General Relativity, and addresses the quandaries of dark or vacuum energy. We consider the current of time to be composed of many time waves. As the current flows, the number of its waves keeps increasing. It is shown that the cumulative sum of the periods of these waves represents the stretching-time, the redshift, Z represents the stretching velocity, and the quantity Z2/t represents the stretching acceleration of the stretching-time. By isolating time from space-time we find a simple equation which is developed based only on time and its kinematics. The validity of this equation is confirmed first through the conformity of its predictions with Einstein’s three predictions, namely the precession of Mercury’s orbit, the bending of light by the sun’s gravity, and the gravitational time dilation. Second, its validity is further confirmed through its consistency with three different sets of observational data as well as with the recent LIGO/Virgo gravitational waves measurement. It is shown that the flow of stretching-time is propelled by the energy released at the big bang. Further, the Hubble constant is estimated analytically. Also a possible source and the quantity of what is called dark energy are identified. It is concluded that the time model may clear the way to a quantum mechanical description of the cosmos.
Cosmic Expansion, Dark Energy, Gravitation, Redshift, Time
To cite this article
Naser Mostaghel, The Role of Time in Cosmic Expansion, American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2018, pp. 9-20. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaa.20180601.12
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Hubble, E., “A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra-Galactic Nebulae, 1929,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 15:3, 168-173 (1929).
Perlmutter, S, 1998, “Supernovae, Dark Energy, and the Accelerating Universe: The Status of the Cosmological Parameters,” Supernova Cosmology Project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720,
Perlmutter, S. (2012), “Nobel Lecture: Measuring the Acceleration of the Cosmic Expansion. Using Supernovae,” Review of Modern Physics, Vol. 84, pp. 1127-1149.
Riess, A. G. (2012), “Nobel Lecture: My Path to the Accelerating Universe,” Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 84, pp. 1165-1175.
Schmidt, B. P. (2012), “Nobel Lecture: Accelerating Expansion of the Universe through Observation of Distant Supernovae,” Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 84, pp. 1151-1163.
Guth, A H, 1981 “The inflationary universe: A possible solution to the horizon and flatness problems,” Phys. Rev. D 23, 347–356.
Guth, AH, 2002, “Inflation and the New Era of High-Precision Cosmology – MIT, Inflation and the New Era of High-Precision Cosmology – MIT.
Guth, A H, 1981 “The inflationary universe: A possible solution to the horizon and flatness problems,” Phys. Rev. D 23, 347–356.
Zeldovich, Y. B., 1970, “Gravitational Instability: An Approximate Theory for Large Density Perturbations,” Astron. & Astrophys. 5, 84-89 (1970).
Albrecht, A., Steinhardt, P. J., 1982, “Cosmology for Grand Unified Theories with Radiatively Induced Symmetry,” Physical Review Letters, 48 1220 (1982).
Linde, A., 1998, “A Toy Model for Open Inflation,” Phys, Rev. D 59 (1999), ArXiv:hep-ph/9807493.
Hawking, S. W., Turok Neil, 2011, “Open Inflation Without False Vacua,” ArXiv:hep-th/9802030v1.
Abbott et al., 2016, “GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241103 (2016).
Abbott et al., 2016, “Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 061102, (2016).
Abbott et al. 2016, “Binary Black Hole Mergers in the First Advanced LIGO Observing Run,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 041015 (2016).
Abbott et al., 2017, “GW170104: Observation of a 50-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence at Redshift 0.2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221101 (2017).
Abbott et al., 2017, “GW170814: A Three-Detector Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Coalescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 141101 (2017).
Clough, R W, Penzien, J, 1975, “Dynamics of Structures,” McGraw-Hill.
Seto, WW, 1964, “Theory and Problems of Mechanical Vibrations,” Schaum Publishing Co New York.
Fixsen, D. J. (2009). "The Temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background". The Astrophysical Journal. 707 (2): 916–920. arXiv:0911.1955 [astro-ph.CO] 10, Nov.
NIST, CODATA VALUE: Wien Wavelength Displacement Law Constant.
Wikipedia, Wien's displacement law – Wikipedia
Jarosik, N., et. al., “Seven-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Sky Maps, Systematic Errors and Basic Results,” Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser. 192, 14, 2011.
Oesch, P A, Brammer, G, Van Dokkum, P G, 2016, “A Remarkably Luminous Galaxy at Z=11.1 Measured with Hubble Space Telescope Crism Spectroscopy,” ArXiv: 1603.00461v1 [astro-ph.GA] 1, March 2016.
Zitrin, A., Labbe, I., Belli, S., et al., 2015, “Lyman-Alpha Emission From A Luminous z = 8.68 Galaxy: Implications for Galaxies as Tracers of Cosmic Reionization,” ArXiv:1507.02679v3 [astro-ph.GA] 13, Aug 2015
Oesch, P. A., Van Dokkum, P. G., Illingworth, G. D., 2015, “A Spectroscopic Redshift Measurement for a Luminous Lyman Break Galaxy at z = 7.730 Using Keck/Mosfire,” ArXiv: 1502.05399v2 [astro-ph.GA] 3, May 2015
Finkelstein, S. L., Papovich, C., Dickinson, M., et al., 2013, “A Rapidly Star-forming Galaxy 700 Million Years After the Big Bang at z = 7.51, AarXiv: 1310.6031v1 [astro-ph.GA] 22, Oct 2013.
Riley, F., Sturges, L. D., 1993, “Engineering Mechanics, Dynamics,” John Wiley & Sons.
Vankov, Anatoli A, 2010, Einstein’s Paper: “Explanation of the Perihelion Motion of Mercury from General Relativity Theory”
GPS, Global Positioning System Precise Positioning Service Performance Standard, February 2007, Department of Defence, USA,
Wikipedia, Error analysis for the Global Positioning System – Wikipedia
Wikipedia, Gravitational time dilation – Wikipedia
Amanullah, R., Lidman, C., Rubin, D., Aldering, G., et al., 2010, “ Spectra and Hubble Space Telescope Light Curves of Six Types Ia Supernovae at 0.511< z <1.12 and the Union2 Compilation,” The Astrophysical Journal, 716:712-738, data available at
Mador, B. F., Steer, I. P., 2008, “NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database Master List of Galaxy Distances,” NED-4D,
Berkeley Lecture 8.1, Representations and Wave functions, C/CS/Phys C191, Fall 2008,
Conover, E., This year’s neutron star collision unlocks cosmic mysteries, Science New, Vol. 192, No. 11, December 23, 2017, p. 19.
Shappee, B J, et al. Early spectra of the gravitational wave source GW170817: Evolution of a neutron star merger. Science. Published online October 16, 2017. doi: 10.1126/science.aaq0186
Riess, A. G, Macri, L M, Hoffmann, S L, et al, 2016, “A 2.4% Determination of the Local Value of the Hubble Constant,” ArXiv:1604.01424v3 [astro-ph.CO] 9 Jun 2016.
Grieb, J N, Sanchez, A G, Salazar-Albornoz, S, et al, 2016, “The Clustering of Galaxies in the Completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey …,” ArXiv:1607.03143v1 [astro-ph.CO] 11 July 2016.
Bonvin, V, Courbin, S H, Suyu, P J, etal, 2017, “H0LiCOW V. New Cosmograil time delays of HE0435-1223: H0 to 3.8% precision from strong lensing in a flat CDM model,” ArXiv:1607.01790v2 [astro-ph.CO] 25 Jan 2017.
Science Publishing Group
NEW YORK, NY 10018
Tel: (001)347-688-8931