American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Volume 4, Issue 2, March 2016, Pages: 15-33
Received: May 11, 2016;
Accepted: May 21, 2016;
Published: Jun. 4, 2016
Views 2003 Downloads 98
Conrad Ranzan, DSSU Research, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada
The presentation exploits several recent advances in understanding the nature of the Universe and its space medium. They include: (1) the DSSU theory of gravity, recently validated by successfully predicting observed patterns of galaxy clustering; (2) the new velocity-differential mechanism, a non-Doppler spectral shift; (3) the remarkably simplifying concept of particles, based on the photon, championed by physicist J. G. Williamson; (4) the unique subquantum medium founded in DSSU theory and the manner in which it conducts photons. Based on these concepts, which are essentially natural processes, it is clearly shown, with the aid of 15 figures, how the photon, the Universe’s fundamental energy particle, is causatively linked to gravity and how it plays a major role in gravitational collapse. The main focus is on the nature of end-stage collapse and the processes that maintain a stable state; the detailed discussion includes the calculations of the mass and radius of the final collapsed structure—the Superneutron Star.
The Nature of Gravitational Collapse, American Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics.
Vol. 4, No. 2,
2016, pp. 15-33.
P. G. Bergmann, The Riddle of Gravitation (Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1992) p131.
J. R. Oppenheimer and H. Snyder, “On continued gravitational contraction,” Physical Review 56 (5): 455–459 (1939). Bibcode: 1939PhRv...56..455O. doi: 10.1103/PhysRev.56.455.
S. Detweiler, "Resource letter BH-1: Black holes," American Journal of Physics 49 (5): 394–400 (1981). Bibcode: 1981AmJPh..49..394D. doi: 10.1119/1.12686.
G. Greenstein, Frozen Star (Freundlich Books, New York, 1983) p209.
R. W. Ronald, Einstein: The Life and Times (The World Publishing Co., New York, 1971) p535.
C. Ranzan, “The History of the Aether Theory,” Web-article posted at: www.CellularUniverse.org/AA3AetherHistory.htm (accessed 2016/3/15).
R. T. Cahill, “Space and gravitation,” Magister Botanicus, Vol. 2, pp. 13-22 (January 2004). Posted at: http://www.mountainman.com.au/process_physics/index_of_papers.htm
C. Ranzan, “The processes of gravitation –The cause and mechanism of gravitation,” Journal of Modern Physics and Applications, Vol. 2014, article: 3 (2014). Posted at: www.cellularuniverse.org/G6GravityProcesses-abst&.htm
C. Ranzan, Guide to the Construction of the Natural Universe (DSSU Research, Niagara Falls, Canada, 2014) www.cellularuniverse.org/
C. Ranzan, “The story of gravity and Lambda –How the theory of Heraclitus solved the dark matter mystery,” Physics Essays Vol. 23, No. 1, pp75-87 (2010 Mar). Posted at: www.cellularuniverse.org/index.htm
C. Ranzan, “The Dynamic Steady State Universe,” Physics Essays Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 286-315 (2014 June) (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4006/0836-1398-27.2.286) Posted at: www.cellularuniverse.org/index.htm
C. Ranzan, “DSSU validated by redshift theory and structural evidence,” Physics Essays, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp 455-473 (2015 Dec) (Doi: 10.4006/0836-1398-28.4.455). Posted at: www.cellularuniverse.org/index.htm
J. C. Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Vol. 2 (Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1873) (Macmillan and Co., London) p 418.
D. Griffiths, Introduction to Elementary Particles (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Canada, 1987) p 22-24.
J. G. Williamson, “On the nature of the electron and other particles,” Conference presentation paper (p1). The Cybernetics Society 40th Anniversary Annual Conference (2008). Posted at www.cybsoc.org/cybcon2008prog.htm (accessed 2012/10/24).
S. Glashow, Interactions (Warner Books, New York, 1988) p122.
Web-article: http://www.simonsfoundation.org/quanta/20140624fluidtestshintatconcretequantumreality/ (accessed 2015-4-10).
A. Einstein, Sidelights on Relativity, translated by: G. B. Jeffery and W. Perret, Methuen & Co. London, (1922); republished unabridged and unaltered: Dover, New York, (1983). P23.
C. Ranzan, “The aether experiments and the impact on cosmology.” Web-article (2009) posted at: (www.cellularuniverse.org/AA1Aether&Cosmology.htm).
A. Einstein, Sidelights on Relativity, translated by G. B. Jeffery and W. Perrett (Methuen & Co. Ltd., 36 Essex Street, London, 1922) p5.
L. Susskind, The Cosmic Landscape, String Theory and the Illusion of Intelligent Design (Back Bay Books; Little, Brown and Co.; New York; 2006) p 71
Webpage posting R. T. Cahill’s research, Index of Papers: http://www.mountainman.com.au/process_physics/index_of_papers.htm
P. D. Ouspensky, 1931, A New Model of the Universe (1971 edition, Vintage Books, New York) p 360.
J. A. Wheeler and E. F. Taylor, Spacetime Physics (W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1966) p 121.
C. Ranzan, “The physical nature of length contraction,” Applied Physics Research Vol. 5, No. 1 (2013 Feb) (Doi: 10.5539/apr.v5n1p87). Posted at: www.cellularuniverse.org/index.htm
A. Einstein, “On a stationary system with spherical symmetry consisting of many gravitating masses,” Annals of Mathematics Vol. 40 (1939) p 922.
P. Davies, About Time, Einstein's Unfinished Revolution (Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, New York, 1995) p 113.
G. Greenstein, Frozen Star (Freundlich Books, New York, 1983) p169.
J. R. Oppenheimer and G. M. Volkoff, "On massive neutron cores," Physical Review 55 (4): 374–381 (1939). Bibcode: 1939 Ph Rv...55..374O. Doi: 10.1103/PhysRev.55.374.