General Universal Relativity (GURL): No Big-Bang
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
Volume 4, Issue 4, August 2016, Pages: 32-58
Received: Nov. 9, 2016;
Accepted: Dec. 6, 2016;
Published: Jan. 29, 2017
Views 1285 Downloads 52
Bandula Dahanayake, Farmfield Crescent, Kanata, Canada
Follow on us
General Universal Relativity (GURL) extends Universal Relativity (URL) on to accelerating frames. As with inertial frames, an accelerating body contracts in all directions resulting in mass density dilation, and hence the dilation of the surface gravity of the accelerating objects. Time and the mass of an accelerating object remain absolute. When acceleration is zero, GURL becomes URL. Light cannot travel forever in the visible frequency region without being succumb to a frequency shift due to the energy loss along the path. Visible universe is the maximum distance light can travel without being subjected to a frequency shift out of the visible region of the spectrum; it is not an indication that universe had a beginning. Visible universe is an observer dependent moving horizon; an indication that the universe is not finite. Cosmic microwave background is a result of distant light bursts that are frequency shifted out of the visible spectrum due to propagation loss. One person’s cosmic microwave background is the visible universe for someone elsewhere and vice versa. Our cosmic microwave background carries the information about stars and galaxies beyond our visible region, but within someone else’s visible region; this information does not represent the early universe. If we send a light burst, some of our out of the visible region neighbors will receive it in the microwave band. What we see in the distance is not our own past, but our distant neighbor’s. No theoretical or observational basis to suggest universe is expanding; big-bang is not plausible. Galactic red shift is due to propagation loss; the further the galaxy away the higher the propagation loss and hence higher the red shift. Increasing galactic red shift indicates the radial movement of galaxies; it is not an indication of space expansion. Rates of change of masses of galaxies create orbits dilation or contraction giving the galaxies radial velocities proportional to the orbital distances. Any galaxy that is moving toward us, such as Andromeda, has a decreasing mass while the galaxies with increasing mass move away from us. A collision of earth with an asteroid would dilate the orbit of the earth abruptly bringing back the ice-age, making the earth un-inhabitable. Total amount of matter and energy in the universe is not calculable; there is no dark matter or dark energy. Although we are not at the center of the universe, we are at the center of a Local Galactic Cluster.
Relativity, Light, Time, Mass, Space, Universe, Big-Bang, Cosmic-Microwave
To cite this article
General Universal Relativity (GURL): No Big-Bang, International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science.
Vol. 4, No. 4,
2016, pp. 32-58.
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Einstein, Albert, “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”, Annalen der Physik, 17 (1905).
Kennedy Robert, “A student Guide to Einstein’s Major Papers”, Oxford University Press, 2012.
Einstein, Albert, “Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?”, Annalen der Physik, 18 (1905).
Dahanayake, Bandula, “Maxwell’s Equations and Propagation of Light: Not Relative”, International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science, Dec. 2015.
Dahanayake, Bandula, “Universal Relativity: Absolute Time and Mass”, International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science, Feb. 2015.
Dahanayake, Bandula, “The Light in a New Light: Always a Wave, Never a Particle”, Science Discovery, Aug. 2015.
Dahanayake, Bandula, “Universe: Not Expanding”, International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science, Aug. 2014.
Hubble Edwin, “A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra-Galactic Nebulae”, Proc. N. A. S., 1929.
Tegmark Max, “Our Mathematical Universe”, Alfred A. Knoff, New York, 2014.
Wikipedia. com, “Lorentz Transform, Special Relativity, General Relativity, Hubble’s Law, Accelerating Universe, History of Big-Bang, Andromeda galaxy, Galaxy Clusters”, Nov. 2015.