Gravitational and Electromagnetic Force Unification, Using a Statistical Analysis from a Signature of Supernova Explosions
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
Volume 7, Issue 3, June 2019, Pages: 33-38
Received: Jul. 17, 2019;
Accepted: Aug. 23, 2019;
Published: Sep. 6, 2019
Views 407 Downloads 51
Joseph Ngene Aniezi, Department of Physics and Industrial Physics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Gabriel Anene, Department of Physics and Industrial Physics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria; Department of Physics, Legacy University, Okija, Nigeria
Unification of gravitational and electromagnetic interactions was done using statistical method. Cosmic ray intensity as a signature from supernova explosions was used to carry out some estimation. These primary cosmic rays are charged particles with an accelerating mechanism, probably electromagnetic; and because their charge is what interacts with matter and produces the effects that we can easily see here on earth. We estimated the values of the electromagnetic interaction and gravitational force of interaction of the source using previous known relations. We were able to obtain a regression equation; with a positive and strong correlation coefficient. Fa depicts the gravitational interaction and Umaa is the electromagnetic interaction. The results suggestively indicate that gravitational and electromagnetic interactions are related. The result indicates that moving charges and moving masses provide an analogy of gravitational and electromagnetic fields, which support the concept of a gravito-magnetic force. It has solved to some extend the speculations about the development in an attempt to unify the interactions of particles; and even to incorporate gravity in the “theory of everything”. Thus, the unification of forces using the explosion mechanism and gravitational waves in core-collapse supernovae has become a reality.
Joseph Ngene Aniezi,
Gravitational and Electromagnetic Force Unification, Using a Statistical Analysis from a Signature of Supernova Explosions, International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science.
Vol. 7, No. 3,
2019, pp. 33-38.
Assis, A. K. T. (2002). On the Unification of forces of Nature. Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, 27 (2): 149-160.
Borzor, I. N. and Goriely, S. (2000). Weak Interaction Rates of Neutron-Rich Nuclei and the R-Process Nucleosynthesis. Physical Review, 62: 1-12.
Collins, P. O. B., Martin, A. D. and Squires, E. J. (1989). Particle Physics. John Wiley and Sons, England. 1-171.
Gamba, A., Marshak, R. E. and Okubo, S. (1959). A Symmetry in Weak Interactions Physics Physical Review, 45: 881-885.
Giancoli, C. D. (2000). Physics of Scientist and Engineers with Modern Physics. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River Publisher, New Jersey. 586- 1134.
Ginzburg, V. and Syrovatskii, L. (1969). The Origin of Cosmic Rays. New York: Gordon and. Breach.
Glashow, S. L. (1960). Partial-Symmetries of Weak Interaction; Nuclear Physics 22: 579-588.
Hasan, A. (2011). A Unified Equation of Interactions. Open Journal of Microphysics, 1 (28): 28-31.
Hawking, S. W. (1976). Blackholes and Thermodynamics. Physical Review D 13: 2-7.
Howard, G. and Glashow, S. L. (1974). Unity of all Elementary-Particle Forces. Physical. Review Letter, 32 (8): 440-441.
Hroost, P. W (1966). Spontaneous Symmetry Breakdown without Massless Bosons. Physical. Review, 145: 4-9.
Hugh, D. Y. and Roger, A. F. (2004). University Physics. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. Publisher, India. 1469-1475.
Hughes, I. S. (1985). Elementary Particles (Second Edition). Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge Publisher USA. 55-302.
Isaev, P. S. (1989). Quantum Electrodynamics at High Energy. American Institute of Physics Inc Publisher, USA. 1-46.
Kang, H., Ryu, D. and Jones, T. W. (1996). Cluster Accretion Shocks as Possible Acceleration Sites for Ultra High Energy Protons below the Greisen Cuto. ApJ, 456, 422.
Ken-ichl, A., Zenro, H., Rokuo, K., Michij, I. and Taizo, M. (1982). Electroweak. Theory Supplement of the Progress of Theoretical Physics, 73: 4-10.
Lalit, K. S., Pearson, V. L. and Samuel, C. (2011). Potentials for the Klein-Gordon and Dirac. Equations. Chiang Mai J. Sci., 38 (4): 514-526.
Ling, J. W. (2018). Unification of Gravitational and Electromagnetic Forces. Fundamental Journal of. Modern Physics. ISSN: 2249-9768. Vol. 11, Issue 1, 2018, Pages 29-40. http://www.frdint.com/
Lo, C. Y. (2017). Comments on “Unification of Gravity and Electromagnetism by Mohammed A.. El-Lakany” & Einstein’s Unification. Journal of Physical Science and Application. 7 (4) (2017). 28-32. doi: 10.17265/2159-5348/2017.04.003.
Lowell, S. B. (1992). Quantum Field Theory. Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, USA. 98-105.
Mike, G. (1991). Gauge Field Theories. John Wiley and Son Inc. Publisher, England. 266-328.
Minkevich, A. V. (2009). Gravitational Interaction and Poin Care Gauge Theory of Gravity. Acta Physica Polonica B, 40 (2): 1-10.
Orear, J. (1979). Physics. Macmillan Co. Inc., Publisher, England. 292-710.
Rao, M. (1998). Extensive Air Showers, World Scientific, p. 10, ISBN 9789810228880.
Renton, P. (1990). Electroweak Interaction: An Introduction of the Physics of Quarks and Lepton University of Cambridge Publisher, USA. 1-544.
Resnick, W. B. (1993). The Fundamental Particles and their Interaction. Lachina Services Publisher, USA. 163-371.
Robson, I. (1996). The Physics and Evolution of Active Galactic Nuclei. Physical Review, 75 (2): 118-122.
Ryuichiro, K. (2006). Gravitational Gauge Mediation. Physics Letters B, 641: 203-207.
Salam, A. (1980). Gauge Unification of Fundamental Forces. Reviews of Modern Physics, 52 (3): 525- 536.
Steven, W. (2000). The Quantum Theory of Fields. The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, USA. 198-235.
Sundaresan, M. K. (2001). Handbook of Particle Physics. Library of Congress Cataloging-In-Publication Data, USA. 131-362.
Wagener, P. (2009). A Unified Theory of Interaction: Gravitation, Electrodynamics and the. Strong.. Force. Progress in Physics 1: 33-35.