The GEM Unification Theory of the Vacuum: Did Dimensional Collapse Trigger the Big Bang
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
Volume 2, Issue 6-1, December 2014, Pages: 24-38
Received: Dec. 21, 2014;
Accepted: Dec. 27, 2014;
Published: Mar. 27, 2015
Views 2451 Downloads 75
John E. Brandenburg, Morninginstar Applied Physics, Vienna, Virginia, USA
The GEM (Gravity EM) unification theory builds on the Sakharov and Kaluza-Klein approaches to unify all four force fields of nature: Gravity, EM, Strong, and Weak using Feynman Path integral formalism. The model is rudimentary, and can be called a “Bohr Model” of unification. It is basically found that Gravity and the other forces can be understood as quantum electrodynamics. In particular the proton emerges as a fundamental particle despite being composed of quarks and is the principle interaction vertex of the Higgs boson, which is seen here as direct consequence of a hidden 5th dimension, where the Higgs mass is due to 5th dimensional compactification. Collapse and compactification of a 5th dimension is argued as the triggering event for the Big Bang. A particle mass formula based on Feynman Path Integrals including paths across the hidden 5th dimension gives the proton and electron masses to high accuracy and finds the charged bosons responsible for the short range nuclear forces. The masses calculated for the particles are as follows: the charged pion m = 2 me / 140.0 MeV and W boson: mw =2 mp = 80.4 GeV. The c meson m =2985 GeV is identified with the 5th dimension compactification force mediated by the Radion field. The Higgs boson associated with this mass inducing field is the most general EM+Radion scattering quanta off the hidden dimension size with a mass mp/α 127.7 GeV. This results in a structural resonance Higgs = rp where Higgs is the Compton radius of the Higgs boson and Higgs =c/mHiggsc2 the rp electro-dynamic length of the proton rp=e2/mpc2. Vacuum decay results from this value of the Higgs boson mass, which is a key parameter in a mass system that creates the proton-electron mass system and thus hydrogen in the Big Bang. The vacuum is found to decay into proton-electron pairs and to give an “eternally inflating” cosmos of Hubble Time TH ( 9/ )1/3 /2 e2 /(4oGmemp ) re/c = 1.2 x1010 years. The predicted value of the CBR(Cosmic Background Radiation) temperature from this vacuum decay is TCBR (4cGme2/(3Th2Stefan-Boltz.)1/3 = 2.65K Support for this consists of observation of the failure of the Sunaeyev-Zeldovich effect, where distant galaxies are not observed to cast shadows in the CBR indicating a source for the CBR in the vacuum itself in the line of sight to more distant galaxies.
John E. Brandenburg,
The GEM Unification Theory of the Vacuum: Did Dimensional Collapse Trigger the Big Bang, International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science. Special Issue:Quantum Vacuum, Fundamental Arena of the Universe: Models, Applications and Perspectives.
Vol. 2, No. 6-1,
2014, pp. 24-38.
Brandenburg,J.E., “An Extension of the GEM Unification Theory to Include Strong and Weak Nuclear Forces and an Estimate of the Higgs Boson Mass STAIF II Conference Albuquerque NM March 2012 now published as :http://www.mehtapress.com/images/stories/journal_of_space_exploration/vol_1_issue_1_file_3.pdf
Brandenburg J. E.: Unification of Gravity and Electromagnetism in the Plasma Universe, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science , Plasma Cosmology Issue Vol 20, 6, p944, 1992.
Brandenburg , J.E.: “ A Model Cosmology Based on Gravity Electro-Magnetism Unification”, Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol 277, p133-144. (Also in “Plasma Astrophysics and Cosmology” (1995) A. L. Peratt Editor , Kluwer Academic Publishers), 1995.
Brandenburg, J.E.: The Value of the Gravitation Constant and its Relation to Cosmic Electrodynamics, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Plasma Cosmology Issue Vol. 35, No. 4., p845, 2007.
Brandenburg J.E.: A Derivation of the Newton Gravitation Constant and the Proton Mass from the GEM Unification Theory of Baryo-Genesis.” Journal of Cosmology Volume 17, 2011.
Klein, Oskar: "Quantum Theory and Five-Dimensional Relativity Zeitschrift fur Physik, 37, 895, 1926.
Sakharov A.D.: “Vacuum quantum fluctuations in curved space and the theory of gravitation” Sov. Phys. Doklady 12,1040-1041, 1968.
Michio Kaku, http://ksj.mit.edu/tracker/2013/03/michio-kaku-says-higgs-boson-caused-big
Feynman, R. P., and Hibbs, A. R., Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965 [ISBN 0-07-020650-3]”
Hawking S. “ Quantum Gravity and Path Integrals” Physical Review D, Vol. 18, 6,1747, (1978).
Mazumdar A., Mopohatra R. N., Pe’rez-Lorenzsana, A.: “Radion Cosmology in Theories with Large Extra Dimensions” http://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ph/0310258v1.pdf, 2003.
Hawking S. in foreward to”Starmus, 50 Years of Man in Space”by Garik Israelian, Carlton Books Ltd (October 23, 2014)
Witten E., Nucl. Phys. B 195, 481 (1982)
Sunyaev, R.A., and Zel’dovich Y.B. (1980) ARA&A , 18, page 537
R.M. Bielby, T. Shanks (2006) “Anomalous SZ Contribution to 3 Year WMAP Data” http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0703470v1
Greiner, B. Müller: Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions. Springer. ISBN 3-540-67672-4, 2004.
Georgi H. and Glashow, S.: “Unity of All Elementary-Particle Forces,” Physical Review Letters, 32, 438, 1974.W.