International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
Volume 2, Issue 6-1, December 2014, Pages: 39-45
Received: Dec. 21, 2014;
Accepted: Dec. 27, 2014;
Published: Mar. 27, 2015
Views 2477 Downloads 132
G. Modanese, Free University of Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, P.za Università 5, Bolzano, Italy
Theory and experiments show that vacuum fluctuations in quantum gravity can be abnormally strong, also at the micrometer or nanometer scale, for the following reasons: (1) the Einstein action is not positive-definite; (2) it is the only possible effective gravitational action; (3) quantum mechanics, in the form of the Feynman path integral, must apply to it, because any natural process is the result of all its possible quantum amplitudes; (4) due to (1), there are important non-classical virtual gravitational field configurations which can agree on a common phase. These field configurations can only interact directly with coherent matter, but can emit virtual gravitons which are absorbed by ordinary matter. All this makes possible, in principle, a vacuum thruster much more efficient than those based on the electromagnetic Casimir effect. We give an estimate of its efficiency based on the mentioned microscopic processes and on some parameters observed in experiments on anomalous forces with superconductors. With the observed energy efficiency of the order of 10-4 and an electric power of 10 W per kilogram of mass to propel, we find that a velocity of 0.1c can be reached in ca. 10 years. Possible improvements and practical limits are outlined. We discuss how the concept of ideal vacuum should be modified in order to allow a consistent description of these phenomena.
Theoretical Limits on the Efficiency of a Quantum Vacuum Thruster, International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science. Special Issue:Quantum Vacuum, Fundamental Arena of the Universe: Models, Applications and Perspectives.
Vol. 2, No. 6-1,
2014, pp. 39-45.
Maclay, G. Jordan, and Robert L. Forward. "A gedanken spacecraft that operates using the quantum vacuum (dynamic Casimir effect)." Foundations of Physics 34.3 (2004): 477-500.
Maclay, G. Jordan. "Thrusting against the quantum vacuum." Frontiers of Propulsion Science, In: Lu FK, editor, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, Reston, Va.: AIAA 227 (2008): 391-422.
Maclay, G. Jordan. "Gedanken experiments with Casimir forces and vacuum energy." Physical Review A 82.3 (2010): 032106.
Nielsen, N. K. "Asymptotic freedom as a spin effect." Am. J. Phys. 49.12 (1981): 1171.
White, H., et al. "Eagleworks Laboratories: Advanced Propulsion Physics Research." (2011). NASA Technical Reports Server, Report JSC-CN-25207.
Puthoff, H. E., and S. R. Little. "Engineering the zero-point field and polarizable vacuum for interstellar flight.", preprint arXiv:1012.5264 (2010).
Pinto, F. "Engine cycle of an optically controlled vacuum energy transducer." Physical Review B 60.21 (1999): 14740.
Pinto, F. "Method and apparatus for energy extraction." U.S. Patent No. 6,477,028. 5 Nov. 2002.
Klinkhamer, F. R., and G. E. Volovik. "Self-tuning vacuum variable and cosmological constant." Physical Review D 77.8 (2008): 085015.
Scandurra, M. (2001). Thermodynamic properties of the quantum vacuum. arXiv preprint hep-th/0104127.
Millis, Marc G. "Progress in revolutionary propulsion physics", preprint arXiv:1101.1063 (2011).
Modanese, G., and G. A. Robertson, eds. Gravity-superconductors interactions: theory and experiment. Bentham Science Publishers, 2012.
Modanese, G. "Gravity-Superconductors Interactions as a Possible Means to Exchange Momentum with the Vacuum." J. Space Exploration 3.2 (2014), arXiv:1408.1636.
Modanese, G. “A Comparison Between the YBCO Discharge Experiments by E. Podkletnov and C. Poher, and their Theoretical Interpretations”, Appl. Phys. Res. 6 (2013) 59-73.
E. Podkletnov and G. Modanese, Investigation of high voltage discharges in low pressure gases through large ceramic superconducting electrodes. J. Low Temp. Phys. 2003; 132: 239-259.
C. Poher and D. Poher, Physical Phenomena Observed during Strong Electric Discharges into Layered Y123 Superconducting Devices at 77 K, Appl. Phys. Res. 3 (2011) 51-66
Woodward, James F. (October 2004). "Flux Capacitors and the Origin of Inertia". Foundations of Physics 34 (10): 1475–1514.
Fearn, H., & Woodward, J. F. (2012). Recent Results of an Investigation of Mach Effect Thrusters. 48th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit 30 July - 01 August 2012, Atlanta, Georgia AIAA 2012-3861
D.A. Brady, H.G. White, P. March, J.T. Lawrence, F.J. Davies, “Anomalous Thrust Production from an RF Test Device Measured on a Low-Thrust Torsion Pendulum”. http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140006052
September 2014 Newsletter, TauZero Foundation, www.tauzero.aero. J. Baez, Google+ posts, Aug. 2 and 3, 2014 https://plus.google.com/117663015413546257905/posts/C7vx2G85kr4
Hartnett, G. S., & Horowitz, G. T. (2013). Geons and spin-2 condensates in the AdS soliton. Journal of High Energy Physics, 2013(1), 1-12.
Burgess, C. P. (2004). Quantum gravity in everyday life: General relativity as an effective field theory. Living Rev. Rel, 7(5), 3.
Hamber HW. Quantum Gravitation. The Feynman Path Integral Approach. Berlin: Springer 2009.
J. Ambjorn, J. Jurkiewicz and R. Loll, Emergence of a 4D world from causal quantum gravity, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 131301.
Alvarez, E. Quantum gravity: an introduction to some recent results. Reviews of Modern Physics 61.3 (1989) 561.
Millis, M. 1997. Challenge to create the space drive. AIAA J. Propulsion Power 13(5): 577–582.
Modanese G. The vacuum state of quantum gravity contains large virtual masses. Class. Quantum Grav. 2007; 24:1899-1909.
Modanese G., Junker T. Conditions for stimulated emission in anomalous gravity-superconductors interactions. In: Classical and Quantum Gravity Research, Ed.s Christiansen MN, Rasmussen TK. Nova Science Publishers 2008; pp. 245-269.
G. Modanese; Quantum Gravity Evaluation of Stimulated Graviton Emission in Superconductors. In: Modanese G., Robertson G.A., Ed.s., Gravity-Superconductors Interactions: Theory and Experiment, Ch. 5, Bentham (2012)
G. Modanese; Anomalous gravitational vacuum fluctuations which act as virtual oscillating dipoles. In: Quantum Gravity, R. Sobreiro Ed., Ch. 1, InTech (2012)
Fralick, G.C., and J.M. Niedra. Experimental results of Schlicher's thrusting antenna. Report NASA/TM-2001 -211207, November 2001, AIAA–2001–3657.
Musha, T. Explanation of dynamical Biefeld-Brown Effect from the standpoint of ZPF field. JBIS, 61 (2008) 379-384.
W. Dröscher. Reality of Gravity-Like Fields? Part I: Recent Experiments that Challenge Current Physics. J. Space Expl. 3 (2014)
Hauser J. Reality of Gravity-Like Fields? Part II: Analysis of gravitomagnetic experiments. J. Space Expl. 3 (2014)
Hauser J. The Physics of “Interstellar” – Mission Impossible. To appear in J. Space Expl., 2015.