The Dynamic Universe – Space as a Spherically Closed Energy System
International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science
Volume 2, Issue 6-1, December 2014, Pages: 66-85
Received: Dec. 21, 2014; Accepted: Dec. 27, 2014; Published: Mar. 27, 2015
Views 4394      Downloads 392
Tuomo Suntola, Physics Foundations Society, Espoo, Finland
Article Tools
Follow on us
The Dynamic Universe model comprises a holistic view and detailed study of space as a spherically closed 3-dimensional energy system in a 4-dimensional universe. It is based on zero-energy balance of motion and gravitation of space as a 3D surface of a 4-sphere – contracting and expanding in the direction of the 4-radius. Such a dynamic solution shows the rest energy of mass in space as the energy of motion mass possesses due to the expansion. DU shows relativity as a consequence of the conservation of total energy and the zero-energy balance in interactions in space, and allows the derivation of physical and cosmological predictions in relatively simple mathematics – with no need to rely on kinematically derived coordinate transformations. The postulates DU employs do not include the principle of relativity, the equivalence principle, or assumptions about the constancy of the velocity of light. Yet, for local phenomena, including near space, DU predictions are essentially the same as the corresponding predictions given by the special and general theories of relativity. Cosmology predictions in DU fit with observations without the need to free parameters like mass density and dark energy used in Friedman-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology. The Dynamic Universe model offers plausible basis for philosophical considerations and leads to an intelligible picture of physical reality from quantum phenomena to the cosmological structure and development of space. The universe in this model presents itself as an intricately ordered whole where local structures and expressions of energy and matter are inseparably connected to the rest of space.
Unifying Theory, Relativity, Cosmology, Quantum Phenomena, Zero-Energy Principle
To cite this article
Tuomo Suntola, The Dynamic Universe – Space as a Spherically Closed Energy System, International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science. Special Issue: Quantum Vacuum, Fundamental Arena of the Universe: Models, Applications and Perspectives. Vol. 2, No. 6-1, 2014, pp. 66-85. doi: 10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.18
T. Suntola, “The Dynamic Universe, Toward a unified picture of physical reality”, 3rd edition, ISBN 978-1461027034, Physics Foundations Society, 354 pages, 2012. e-book(pdf) ISBN 978-952-67236-5-5
A. Einstein, Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie, Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akad. d. Wissenschaften (1917)
R. Feynman, W. Morinigo, and W. Wagner, Feynman Lectures on Gravitation (during the academic year 1962-63), Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, p. 164 (1995)
R. Feynman, W. Morinigo, and W. Wagner, Feynman Lectures on Gravitation (during the academic year 1962-63), Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, p. 10 (1995)
J.O. Dickey, Science 265 (1994) 482
J.W. Wells, Nature 197, (1963) 948
J.W. Wells in Paleogeophysics, Edited by S.K. Runcorn, Academic Press, London (1970)
D.L. Eicher, Geologic Time, 2nd edition, Prentice/Hall International Inc., London (1976) 117
J.P. Vanyo and S.M. Awramik, Precambrian Research 29, (1985) 121
P-S. Laplace, Mécanique Céleste,
H. Poincaré, Science and Hypothesis,
R. Genzel et al., Nature 425 (2003) 934
M. Berry, Principles of cosmology and gravitation, CRC Press (1989)
J. Weber, General Relativity and gravitational waves, Interscience Publishers Inc (1961)
J. Foster, J. D. Nightingale, A Short Course in General Relativity, 2nd edition, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 0-387-94295-5 (2001)
T. Suntola, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5866 (2005),
R.C. Tolman, PNAS 16, 511-520, 1930
T.E. Cranshaw, J.P. Schiffer, and A.B. Whitehead, Phys. Rev. Letters 4, 4 (1960), 163
R.V. Pound and G.A. Rebka Jr., Phys. Rev. Letters 4 (1960) 337
R.V. Pound and J.L. Snider, Phys. Review 140, 3B (1965) B788
R.F.C. Vessot et al., Phys. Rev. Letters, 45, 26 (1980) 2081
W. de Sitter, B.A.N. 6, 223, p. 146 (1931)
I.M.H. Etherington, Phil. Mag. ser. 7 15, 761–773 (1933)
K. Nilsson et al., Astrophys. J., 413, 453, (1993)
E. Hubble, M. L. Humason, Astrophys.J., 74, 43 (1931)
W. de Sitter, B.A.N., 7, No 261, 205 (1934)
H. P. Robertson, Zs.f.Ap., 15, 69 (1938)
A. G. Riess et al., Astrophys. J., 607, 665 (2004)
T. Suntola and R. Day, arXiv/astro-ph/0412701 (2004)
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186