Characterization and Identification of Fungi in the Sorrel Beverage (Zobo) Hawked in Ifite Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
International Journal of Homeopathy & Natural Medicines
Volume 4, Issue 1, June 2018, Pages: 24-30
Received: Nov. 30, 2017; Accepted: Dec. 21, 2017; Published: Apr. 8, 2018
Views 1461      Downloads 144
Onuorah Samuel, Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Odibo Frederick, Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Sorrel beverage (Zobo) is a nutritive, medicinal and refreshing drink made from the dried calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa. The fungal assessment of the Zobo samples purchased from ten hawkers in Ifite Awka, Nigeria as well as the control sample were carried out using standard methods. The pH values of the samples were also determined. The average fungal counts of the hawked samples ranged between 110 and 210 cfu/ml while the pH ranged between 2.1 and 2.6. No fungus was isolated from the control sample prepared under aseptic conditions in the laboratory while it’s pH was 2.2. The fungi were identified as Aspergillus niger (23.77%), Rhizopus stolonifer (19.48%), Fusarium oxysporum (8.57%), Penicillium expansum (17.14%), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (31.04%). Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium expansum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were present in 70%, 60%, 30%, 50% and 90% of the samples respectively. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the predominant fungus isolated from the samples. The presence of most of these fungi in significant numbers in the product is a public health problem. Effective preservation methods should be used while adequate quality control during production, packaging and storage as well as good personal and environmental hygiene should be encouraged. These measures will minimize the entry and proliferation of fungi and the health risk associated with them.
Fungi, Characterization, Identification, Sorrel Beverage, Ifite Awka, Nigeria
To cite this article
Onuorah Samuel, Odibo Frederick, Characterization and Identification of Fungi in the Sorrel Beverage (Zobo) Hawked in Ifite Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria, International Journal of Homeopathy & Natural Medicines. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2018, pp. 24-30. doi: 10.11648/j.ijhnm.20180401.15
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
E. M. Ilondu and A. C. Iloh. Inhibition of three fungal isolates from Sorrel drink (Zobo) using hurdle techniques. World J. Agric. Sci. 3 (3): 339-343, 2007. Https://
B. C. Adebayo-tayo and U. A. Samuel. Microbial quality and proximate composition of dried Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes in Uyo, Eastern Nigeria. Malaysian J. of Microbiol. 5 (1): 13-18, 2009. DOI: 10.21161/mjm.12608.
S. B. Fasoyiro, S. O. Babalola and T. Owosibo. Chemical composition and Sensory quality of fruit-flavoured Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) drinks. World J. Agric. Sci. 1 (2): 161-164, 2005.
J. Alarcon-Alonso, A. Zamilpa, F. A. Aguilar, M. Herrera-Ruiz, J. Tortoriello and E. Jimenez Ferrer. Pharmacological characterization of the diuretic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae) extract. J. Enthnopharmacol. 139 (3): 751-756, 2012.
H. A. Wahabi, L. A. Alansary, A. H. AL-Sabban and P. Glasziuo. The effectiveness of Hibiscus sabdariffa in the treatment of hypertension. A systematic review. Phytomedicine. 17 (2): 83-86, 2010.
M. Fullerton, J. Khatiwada, J. U. Johnson, S. Davis and L. L Williams. Determination of antimicrobial activity of Sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on Escherichia coli 0157: H7 isolated from food, veterinary and clinical samples. J. Med. Food. 14 (9): 950-956, 2011. DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2010.0200.
P. Wong, S. Yusof, H. M. Ghazali and Y. B Cheman. Physicochemical characteristics of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Nutr. Food Sci. 32 (2): 68-73, 2002. doi:10.1108/00346650210416994.
S. O. Babalola, A. O. Babalola and O. C. Aworh. Compositional attributes of the calyces of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). J. Food Tech. in Africa. 6 (4): 133-134, 2001. DOI: 10.4314/jfta.v6i4.19306.
G. Oboh and C. A. Elusiyan. Nutrient composition and antimicrobial activity of Sorrel drinks (Soborodo). J. Med. Food. 7 (3): 340-342, 2004. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2004.7.340.
I. S. Ogiehor, O. E. Nwafor and U. B. Owhe- Ureghe. Changes in the quality of Zobo beverages produced from Hibiscus sabdariffa (Lin) Roselle and the effects of extract of ginger alone or in combination with refrigeration. African J. Biotech. 7 (8): 1176-1180, 2008.
J. A. Kolawole and S. O. Okeniyi. Quantitative mineral ion content of a Nigeria local refreshing drink –Zobo- (water extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx). Res. J. Pharm. 1 (1): 23-26, 2007. doi: rjpharm.2007.23.26.
O. J. Egbere, J. C. Anuonye, P. F. Chollom and P. V. Okpara. Effects of some preservation techniques on the quality and storage stability of Zobo drink (A Nigerian, non-alcoholic beverage from Hibiscus sabdariffa). J. Food Tech. 5 (3): 225-245, 2007.
N. A. Amusa, O. A. Ashaye, A. A. Aiyegbayo, M. O. Oladapo, M. O. Oni and O. O. Afolabi. Microbiological and nutritional quality of hawked Sorrel drinks (Soborodo) widely consumed and notable drinks in Nigeria. J. Food Agric. Environ. 3 (3-4): 47-50, 2005.
M. Cheesbrough. District laboratory practice in Tropical Countries, part 2, Cambridge Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Pp 137-150, 2006.
S. B. Oyeleke and S. B. Manga. Essentials of laboratory Practicals in Microbiology. Tobest Publishers, Minna. Pp 36-75, 2008.
S. C. Onuorah, C. A. Akudo, N. A. Okafor, I. E. Obika and U. C. Okafor. Bacteriological quality of locally-produced Sorrel beverage (Zobo) vended in Awka Campus of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria. Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 5 (7): 1542-1550, 2015.
I. A. Adesokan, O. P. Abiola, M. O. Adigun and O. A. Anifowose. Analysis of quality attributes of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Zobo) drinks blended with aqueous extract of ginger and garlic. Afri. J. Food Sci. 7 (7): 174-177, 2013. DOI: 10.5897/AJFS12.152.
A. M. Omemu, M. O. Edema. A. O. Atayese and A. O. Obadina. A survey of the microflora of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) and the resulting Zobo juice. African J. Biotech. 5 (3): 254-259, 2006. DOI: 10.5897/AJBO5.290.
W. Braide, S. Oranusi and A.I. Peter-Ikechukwu. Perspectives in the hurdle techniques in the preservation of a non-alcoholic beverage, Zobo. Afr. J. Food Sci. Technol. 3 (2): 46-52, 2012.
O. E. Nwafor. Growth inhibitions of three fungal isolates from Zobo drink using sorbic and benzoic acids. Afr. J. Food Sci. Technol. 3 (3): 66-72, 2012. AJFST.
I. S. Ogiehor and O. E. Nwafor. Associated microbial, biochemical and chemical quality changes in Zobo beverage produced from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. Nig Annal Nat Sci. 5 (2): 1-10, 2004
B. Osuntogun and O. O. Aboaba. Microbiological and physicochemical evaluation of some non-alcoholic beverages. Pak. J. Nutrition. 3 (3): 188-192, 2004. DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2004.188.192.
J. H. Doughari, G. Alabi and A. M. Elmahmood. Effect of some chemical preservatives on the shelf life of Sobo drink. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 2: 037-041, 2007.
O. E. Nwafor and M. J. Ikenebomeh. Effect of sodium benzoate on the growth and enzyme activity of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium citrinum in Zobo drink during storage at 30 ± 2°C. Afr. J. Biotech. 8 (12): 2843-2447, 2009.
A. A. Ayandele. Microbiological Analyses of Hawked Kunun and Zobo Drinks within LAUTECH Campus, Ogbomosho Oyo State, Nigeria. 10SR-JESTFT. 9 (10): 52-56, 2015 DOI: 10.9790/2402-091025256.
R. R. Roth and W. D. James. Microbial ecology of the skin. Annu Rev Microbiol. 42: 441-464, 1988.
J. Araiza, P. Canseco and A. Bonifaz. Otomycosis: Clinical and mycological study of 97 cases. Rev. de Laryngol-Otol-rhinol. 127 (4): 251-254, 2006.
K. W. Loudon, A. P. Coke, J. P. Burnie, A. J. Shaw, B. A. Oppenheim and C. Q. Morris. Kitchens as a source of Aspergillus niger infection. J. Hosp. Infect. 32 (3): 191-198, 1996. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih/gov/pubmed/8690882.
B. J. O. Efiuvwevwere and O. Akoma. The effects of chemical preservatives and pasteurization on the microbial spoilage and shelf life of Kunun-zaki. J. Food Safety. 17 (3): 203-213, 1997. DOI:10.1111/j.1745-4565.1997.tb00187.x.
P. M. Kirk, P. F. Cannon, D. W. Minter and J. A. Stalpers. Dictionary of the fungi (10th ed.). Wallington, United Kingdom: CABI, P599, 2008.
R. Y. Chinn and R. D. Diamond. Generation of chemotactic factors by Rhizopus oryzae in the presence and absence of serum: relationship to hyphal damage mediated by human neutrophils and effects of hyperglycemia and Ketoacidosis. Infect. Immun. 38 (3): 1123-1129, 1982.
T. Ekrakene and C. L. Igeleke. Microorganisms associated with public mobile phones along Benin-Sapele express way. J. Appl. Sci. Res. 3 (12): 2009-2012, 2007.
J. Guarro. Fusariosis, a complex infection caused by a high diversity of fungal species refractory to treatment. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 32 (12): 1491-1500, 2013. doi: 10.1007/s 10096-013-1924-7.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186