Characterization of Surface Water Components in Northern Sudan Using Raman Spectroscopy
International Journal of Fluid Mechanics & Thermal Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 1, March 2019, Pages: 28-35
Received: Mar. 31, 2019;
Accepted: May 5, 2019;
Published: May 31, 2019
Views 535 Downloads 75
Sufyan Sharafedin Mohammed, Department of Physics, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Institute of Laser, Khartoum, Sudan
Abdelmoneim Mohammed Awadelgied, Department of Engineering, Karary University, Khartoum, Sudan
Sohad Saad El Wakeel, Department of Physics, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Institute of Laser, Khartoum, Sudan
Ahmed Abubaker Mohamed, Department of Physics, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Institute of Laser, Khartoum, Sudan
Most population in northern Sudan are supplied by surface water sources directly from the Nile for drinking and irrigation purposes. As noted, most of them suffer from chronic diseases such as cancer and kidney failure. Water is expected to be a major and direct cause of these diseases, so the aim of this study is to identify the components of surface water in northern Sudan using Raman spectroscopy. Surface water Samples were collected from the Nile in different regions. The samples were analyzed at room temperature using Raman spectrometer model Horiba Lab RAM HR D3. The results showed that the samples contain different materials, beside the water, with different amounts; like: aromatic molecules, ester, salts, amides, phenol, alkynes and acids. From the results we have found that the water contains many toxic compounds such as cyanide, nitrate and phenol, which is one of the most important causes of cancer and renal failure. As well as can cause oxidize the iron atoms in hemoglobin from ferrous iron (II) to ferric iron (III), rendering it unable to carry oxygen. This process can lead to generalized lack of oxygen in organ tissue and a dangerous condition called methemoglobinemia.
Sufyan Sharafedin Mohammed,
Abdelmoneim Mohammed Awadelgied,
Sohad Saad El Wakeel,
Ahmed Abubaker Mohamed,
Characterization of Surface Water Components in Northern Sudan Using Raman Spectroscopy, International Journal of Fluid Mechanics & Thermal Sciences.
Vol. 5, No. 1,
2019, pp. 28-35.
DVandas, S. J., Winter, T. C. and Battaglin, W. A., 2002. Water and the Environment. American Geological Institute.
Melissa Valentine, et al., 2010. Water Sources, Fourth Edition.
Edwards HG., 2005. Modern Raman spectroscopy-a practical approach. Ewen Smith and Geoffrey Dent. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester, Pp. 210. ISBN 0 471 49668 5 (cloth, hb); 0 471 49794 0 (pbk).
Peter Larkin, 2011. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Principles and Spectral Interpretation, Elsevier.
Katharina Eberhardt, et al, 2015. Advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for molecular diagnostics: an update.
Robert, M. S., Francis, X. W. and David, J. K., 2005. Spectrometric identification of organic compounds. John wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, edn, 7, p. 106.
MANOHARAN, R. and SETHI, N., 2003. 8.51 Raman Analyzers.
Socrates, G., 2004. Infrared and Raman characteristic group frequencies: tables and charts. John Wiley & Sons.
Li, G., Chen, M. and Wei, T., 2009, July. Application of Raman spectroscopy to detecting organic contaminant in water. In 2009 IITA International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems Engineering (case 2009) (pp. 493-495). IEEE.
Lin-Vien, D., Colthup, N. B., Fateley, W. G. and Grasselli, J. G., 1991. The handbook of infrared and Raman characteristic frequencies of organic molecules. Elsevier.
Durickovic, I. and Marchetti, M., 2014. Raman spectroscopy as polyvalent alternative for water pollution detection. IET Science, Measurement & Technology, 8 (3), pp. 122-128.
De Veij, M., Vandenabeele, P., De Beer, T., Remon, J. P. and Moens, L., 2009. Reference database of Raman spectra of pharmaceutical excipients. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: An International Journal for Original Work in all Aspects of Raman Spectroscopy, Including Higher Order Processes, and also Brillouin and Rayleigh Scattering, 40 (3), pp. 297-307.
Mabrouk, K. B., Kauffmann, T. H. and Fontana, M. D., 2013. Abilities of Raman sensor to probe pollutants in water. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 450, No. 1, p. 012014). IOP Publishing.
Cornell, R. M. and Schwertmann, U., 2003. The iron oxides: structure, properties, reactions, occurrences and uses. John Wiley & Sons.
Oh, S. J., Cook, D. C. and Townsend, H. E., 1998. Characterization of iron oxides commonly formed as corrosion products on steel. Hyperfine interactions, 112 (1-4), pp. 59-66.
Shebanova, O. N. and Lazor, P., 2003. Raman spectroscopic study of magnetite (FeFe2O4): a new assignment for the vibrational spectrum. Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 174 (2), pp. 424-430.
Nafie A. Almusleta, Mubarak M. Ahmedb, Siham M. Hassenc, 2016. Characterization of Magnetite and 2-line Ferrihydrite Using Laser Raman Spectroscopy International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR).
Ito, K., Kato, T. and Ona, T., 2002. Non‐destructive method for the quantification of the average particle diameter of latex as water‐based emulsions by near‐infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 33 (6), pp. 466-470.
Frost, R. L., Weier, M. L., Čejka, J. and Theo Kloprogge, J., 2006. Raman spectroscopy of walpurgite. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: An International Journal for Original Work in all Aspects of Raman Spectroscopy, Including Higher Order Processes, and also Brillouin and Rayleigh Scattering, 37 (5), pp. 585-590.
Sobrón, P., Rull, F., Sobron, F., Sanz, A., Medina, J. and Nielsen, C. J., 2007. Modeling the physico‐chemistry of acid sulfate waters through Raman spectroscopy of the system FeSO4 H2SO4 H2O. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: An International Journal for Original Work in all Aspects of Raman Spectroscopy, Including Higher Order Processes, and also Brillouin and Rayleigh Scattering, 38 (9), pp. 1127-1132.
Ćirić‐Marjanović, G., Trchová, M. and Stejskal, J., 2008. The chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in water: Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: An International Journal for Original Work in all Aspects of Raman Spectroscopy, Including Higher Order Processes, and also Brillouin and Rayleigh Scattering, 39 (10), pp. 1375-1387.
Phongpa-Ngan, P., Aggrey, S. E., Mulligan, J. H. and Wicker, L., 2014. Raman spectroscopy to assess water holding capacity in muscle from fast and slow growing broilers. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 57 (2), pp. 696-700.
Fangyuan Han, Weimin Liu and Chong Fang, 2013. Excited-state proton transfer of photoexcitedpyranine in water observed by femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy, Chemical Physics.