Many plants have been used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Jordanian system of medicine and in other ancient systems of the world. The present study is aimed to evaluate the potential mechanism of antidiabetic action of aqueous extract of Alkanna strigosa aerial part and its hypolipidemic effects in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. This study was conducted on fifty experimental animals. Adult albino rats (Sprague- Dawely strain) weighing about 220 g each were used throughout the study. Fifty rats were randomly assigned to five experimental groups of 10 rats each: Group 1 - received normal saline (0.5 ml/kg), and serves as control. Group II - gavaged daily for thirty days with 1ml of the extract at doses of 400 mg/kg body wt and served as control. Group III - Untreated diabetic rats that received two doses of alloxan 150 mg/kg. Group IV – Treated diabetic rats for thirty consecutive days with 1 ml of the extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg body wt. Group V: Treated diabetic rats for thirty consecutive days with 14.2 mg/kg of metformin. Several hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed. It was found that the administration of aqueous extract of Alkanna strigosa produced significant reduction in blood glucose level in diabetic rats after thirty days of treatment. However, there was a significant (p < 0.05). Increase of insulin secretion. Also, the RBC and WBC count, PCV and neutrophil percentage decreased significantly (p < 0.05). This study indicated that the aqueous extract of Alkanna strigosa increased the RBC and WBC counts, PCV, ESR, and neutrophil percentage in diabetic rats. However, the WBC count of the extract - treated diabetic group was still lower than those of control values. Administration of the extract resulted in a significant reduction in the mean values of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, ESR, urea, uric acid, creatinine accompanied by an increase in the mean values of total protein, albumin, insulin, HDL-C, neutrophile count and PCV in diabetic rats. No significant changes in these parameters were found in the control group. Effects produced by this extract were closely similar to a standard antidiabetic drug, metformin. (p < 0.05) hypoglycemic effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, protection against body weight loss of diabetic animals and might alleviate diabetes-induced disturbances of some biochemical and hematological parameters. These results suggest that the oral administration of aqueous extract of the aerial part of Alkanna strigosa possesses antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
The Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Alkanna strigosa in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats, Journal of Diseases and Medicinal Plants.
Vol. 5, No. 4,
2019, pp. 60-68.
Osadebe PO, Odoh EU, Uzor PF. The search for new hypoglycemic agents from plant. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol. 2014; 8 (11): 292–303. doi: 10.5897/AJPP2014.3933.
Modak M, Dixit P, Londhe J, Ghaskadbi S, Devasagayam TPA. Indian herbs and herbal drugs used for the treatment of diabetes. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2007; 40 (3): 163. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.40.163.
Mukesh R, Namita P. Medicinal Plants with Antidiabetic Potential-A Review. American-Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci. 2013; 13 (1): 81–94.
Kazi S. Use of traditional plants in diabetes mellitus. Int J Pharm. 2014; 4 (4): 283 9.
Bathaie S, Mokarizade N, Shirali S. An overview of the mechanisms of plant ingredients in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. J Med Plant. 2012; 4 (44): 1–24.
Hui H, Zhao X, Perfetti R. Structure and function studies of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1): the designing of a novel pharmacological agent for the treatment of diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2005; 21: 313–31. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.553.
De Leo V, Musacchio MC, Morgante G, La Marca A, Petraglia F. olycystic ovary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Minerva Ginecol. 2004 Feb; 56 (1): 53-62.
Mirella Hage, Mira S. Zantout, and Sami T. Azar. Thyroid Disorders and Diabetes Mellitus. J Thyroid Res. 2011; 2011: 439463. Published online 2011 Jul 12. doi: 10.4061/2011/439463.
Mattia Barbot, Filippo Ceccato, and Carla Scaroni. Diabetes Mellitus Secondary to Cushing’s disease. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2018; 9: 284.
Young WF Jr. Adrenal causes of hypertension: pheochromocytoma and primary aldosteronism. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2007 Dec; 8 (4): 309-20.
Francesco Ferraù Adriana Albani Alessandro Ciresi Carla Giordano and Salvatore Cannavò. Diabetes Secondary to Acromegaly: Physiopathology, Clinical Features and Effects of Treatment. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2018; 9: 358.
Gisela Wilcox, insulin and Insulin Resistance. Clin Biochem Rev. 2005 May; 26 (2): 19–39.
Yanling Wu, Yanping Ding, Yoshimasa Tanaka, and Wen Zhang. Risk Factors Contributing to Type 2 Diabetes and Recent Advances in the Treatment and Prevention Int J Med Sci. 2014; 11 (11): 1185–1200.
Dey L, Attele AS, Yuan CS. Alternative therapies for type 2 diabetes. Altern Med Rev. 2002; 7: 45–58.
Kooti W, Moradi M, Akbari SA, Sharafi-Ahvazi N, AsadiSamani M, Ashtary-Larky D. Therapeutic and pharmacological potential of Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A review. J HerbMed Pharmacol. 2015; 4: 1–9.
Afrisham R, Aberomand M, Ghaffari MA, Siahpoosh A, Jamalan M. Inhibitory Effect of Heracleum persicum and Ziziphus jujuba on Activity of Alpha-Amylase. Journal of Botany. 2015; 2015: 1–8. doi: 10.1155/2015/824683.
Hegazy GA, Alnoury AM, Gad HG. The role of Acacia Arabica extract as an antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidant in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Saudi Med J. 2013 Jul; 34 (7): 727-33.
Kumar A, Gnananath K, Gande S, Goud E, Rajesh P, Nagarjuna S. Anti-diabetic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Achyranthes aspera Leaves in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2011; 4: 3124–5.
Andrade-Cetto A, Wiedenfeld H. Hypoglycemic effect of Acosmium panamense bark on streptozotocin diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Feb; 90 (2-3): 217-20.
Zhang X-F, Tan B. Anti-diabetic property of ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2000; 21 (12): 1157–64.
Eidi A, Eidi M, Esmaeili E. Antidiabetic effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Phytomedicine. 2006; 13 (9): 624–9. DOI 10.1016/j.phymed.2005.09.010
Kaleem M, Asif M, Ahmed Q, Bano B. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Annona squamosa extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Singapore Med J. 2006; 47 (8): 670–5.
Raina R, Prawezi S, Verma PK, Pankaj NK. Medicinal plants and their role in wound healing. Vet Scand. 2008; 3: 1–7.
Talib WH, Mahasneh AM. Antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and phytochemical screening of Jordanian plants used in traditional medicine. Molecules. 2010; 15: 1811–24. doi: 10.3390/molecules15031811.
Morton JF. Search for carcinogenic principles. In: Swaain T, Kleiman R, editors. Recent advances in phytochemistry. Florida, USA: Plenum Press; 1980.
Imad I. Hamdan, Fatma U. Afifi, Screening of Jordanian flora for α-amylase inhibitory activity, Pharm. Biol. 46 (10-11) (2008) 746–750.
Feras Q. Alali, Khaled Tawaha, Tamam El-Elimat, Maha Syouf, Mosa El-Fayad, Khaled Abulaila, Samara Joy Nielsen, William D. Wheaton, Joseph O. Falkinham III, Nicholas H. Oberlies, Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Jordanian plants: an ICBG project, Nat. Prod. Res. 21 (12) (2007) 1121–1131.
Sawsan A. Oran, Potato disc bioassay for some Jordanian medicinal plants, Pharm. Biol. 37 (4) (1999) 296–299.
Szkudelski, T., 2001. The mechanism of alloxan and streptozotocin action in β cells of the rat pancreas. Physiol. Res., 50: 537-546.
Amanda Natália Lucchesi, Lucas Langoni Cassettariand César Tadeu Spadella. Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Causes Morphological and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Liver that Resemble the Natural History of Chronic Fatty Liver Disease in Humans. J Diabetes Res. 2015; 2015: 494578.
Ankur Rohilla and Shahjad Ali. Alloxan Induced Diabetes: Mechanisms and Effects. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences. Vol. 3 (2) Apr – Jun 2012 www.ijrpbsonline.com.
Alugoju Phaniendra, Dinesh Babu Jestadi, and Latha Periyasamy. Free Radicals: Properties, Sources, Targets, and Their Implication in Various Diseases. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2015 Jan; 30 (1): 11–26.
Didem taştekin, mustafa atasever, gülşah adigüzel, mustafa keleş and ayhan taştekin. Hypoglycaemic effect of artemisia herba-alba in experimental hyperglycaemic rats. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 50, 235-238, 2006.
Algandaby MM, Alghamdi HA, Ashour OM, Abdel-Naim AB, Ghareib SA, Abdel-Sattar EA, Hajar AS. Mechanisms of the antihyperglycemic activity of Retama raetam in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Aug-Sep; 48 (8-9): 2448-53. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.06.01.
Ramya Rajasekar, Kalaiselvi Manokaran, Narmadha Rajasekaran, Gomathi Duraisamy, andDevaki Kanakasabapathi. Effect of Alpinia calcarata on glucose uptake in diabetic rats-an in vitro and in vivo model. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2014; 13: 33.
Nasser S. Abou Khalil Alaa S. Abou-Elhamd, Salwa I. A. Wasfy, Ibtisam M. H. El Mileegy, Mohamed Y. Hamed, and Hussein M. Ageely. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Impacts of Desert Date (Balanites aegyptiaca) and Parsley (Petroselinum sativum) Aqueous Extracts: Lessons from Experimental Rats. J Diabetes Res. 2016; 2016: 8408326.
Dan Tang, Liu Liu, Dildar Ajiakber, Jianping Ye, Jianjun Xu, Xuelei Xin and Haji Akber Aisa, Anti-diabetic Effect of Punica granatum Flower Polyphenols Extract in Type 2 Diabetic Rats: Activation of Akt/GSK-3β and Inhibition of IRE1α-XBP1 Pathways. Front. Endocrinol., 15 October 2018 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2018.00586.
Ayman M. Mahmoud. Hematological alterations in diabetic rats - Role of adipocytokines and effect of citrus flavonoids. EXCLI J. 2013; 12: 647–657.
Jana Viskupicova, Dusan Blaskovic, Sabina Galiniak, Mirosław Soszyński, Grzegorz Bartosz, Lubica Horakova, and Izabela Sadowska-Bartosz. Effect of high glucose concentrations on human erythrocytes in vitro. Redox Biol. 2015 Aug; 5: 381–387.
Jaouhari JT, Lazrek HB, Jana M.. The hypoglycemic activity of Zygophyllum gaetulum extracts in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Jan; 69 (1): 17-20.
Cavalher-Machado SC, de Lima WT, Damazo AS, de Frias Carvalho V, Martins MA, Silva PM, et al, 2004. Down-regulation of mast cell activation and airway reactivity in diabetic rats: role of insulin. Eur Respir J; 24: 552-558.
Moriguchi P, Sannomiya P, Lara PF, Oliveira-Filho RM, Greco KV, Sudo-Hayashi LS. 2005. Lymphatic system changes in diabetes mellitus: role of insulin and hyperglycemia. Diabetes Metab Res Rev; 21: 150-157.
Benjamin M Leon and Thomas M Maddox. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Epidemiology, biological mechanisms, treatment recommendations and future research. World J Diabetes. 2015 Oct 10; 6 (13): 1246–1258.
K Mahdy Ali, A Wonnerth, K Huber, and J Wojta. Cardiovascular disease risk reduction by raising HDL cholesterol – current therapies and future opportunities. Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Nov; 167 (6): 1177–1194.
S. Radhika, K. H. Smila and R. Muthezhilan. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Activity of Punica granatum Linn on Alloxan Induced Rats. World Journal of Medical Sciences 6 (4): 178-182, 2011.
Pushparaj, P., C. H. Tan and B. K. H. Tan, 2000. Effects of Averrhoa bilimbi leaf extract on blood glucose and lipids in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 72: 69-76.
Pepato, M. T., A. M. Baviera, R. C. Vendramini, M. P. Perez, I. C. Kettelhut and I. L. Brunetti, 2003. Cissus sicyoides (Princess wine) in the long term treatment of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Biotechnol. Applied Biochem., 37: 15-20.
Enomfon J Akpan, Jude E Okokon, and Emem Offong Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Melanthera scandens. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012 Jul; 2 (7): 523–527.
Raz I, Eldor R, Cernea S, Shafrir E. Diabetes: insulin resistance and derangements in lipid metabolism. Cure through intervention in fat transport and storage. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2005 Jan-Feb; 21 (1): 3-14.
Sachdewa A, Khemani LD. Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. Ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Nov; 89 (1): 61-6.
Krishna, B., S. Nammi, M. K. Kota and R. V. Krishna Rao, 2004. Evaluation of hypoglycemic and antihyperglycaemic effects of Datura metel Linn. seeds in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 9: 95-98.
Nagappa, A. N., P. A. Thakurdesai, N. V. Rao and J. Singh, 2003. Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia catappa Linn fruits. J. Ethnopharmacol., 88: 45-50.
Ramkumar KM, Latha M, Venkateswaran S, Pari L, Ananthan R, Bai VN. Modulatory effect of Gymnema montanum leaf extract on brain antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in diabetic rats. J Med Food. 2004 Fall; 7 (3): 366-71.
Ruzaidi A, Amin I, Nawalyah AG, Hamid M and Faizul HA, 2005. The effect of malaysian cocoa extract on glucose levels and lipid profiles in diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 98: 55-60.
Choudhary MI, Naheed S, Jalil S, Alam JM, Atta-ur-Rahman., Effects of ethanolic extract of Iris germanica on lipid profile of rats fed on a high-fat diet. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr 8; 98 (1-2): 217-20.
Aastha Chawla, Rajeev Chawla, and Shalini Jaggi Microvasular and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus: Distinct or continuum? Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jul-Aug; 20 (4): 546–551.
Ahmed I, Lakhani MS, Gillett M, John A, Raza H. Hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of anti-diabetic Momordica charantia Karela. Fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabet. Res. Clin. Pract. 2001; 51: 155–161.