Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Role of Ziziphus jujuba Leaves on Paracetamol Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats
Journal of Diseases and Medicinal Plants
Volume 2, Issue 1-1, February 2016, Pages: 1-10
Received: Jan. 5, 2016; Accepted: Jan. 20, 2016; Published: Feb. 23, 2016
Views 4269      Downloads 202
Authors
J. Preethi, Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore, India
K. Vennila, Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore, India
S. Penislusshiyan, Department of Biochemistry, Periyar University, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India
S. Velvizhi, Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore, India
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Ziziphus jujuba leaves against paracetamol-induced liver injury in experimental rats. Ziziphus jujuba has been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine as a chief ingredient in many polyherbal formulations as antioxidant. To evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous leaf extract of Ziziphus jujuba leaves. Animals were pre-treated with the aqueous leaf extract for 7 days and then toxicity was induced with a single paracetamol oral injection. Pre-treatment with 150mg/kg of aqueous leaf extract of Ziziphus jujuba improved the reduced glutathione (oxidized), SOD, catalase, and peroxidase levels significantly as compared to control group. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observation was reported for rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Ziziphus jujuba leaves have potent hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract was found more potent hepatoprotective. Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activities were also screened which were positive for aqueous extracts. On the basis of this study, we conclude that aqueous extract of Ziziphus jujuba possesses in vivo antioxidant activity and can be employed in protecting tissues from oxidative damage and stress.
Keywords
Ziziphus jujuba, Silymarin, Paracetamol, Biochemical Markers, Hepatoprotective
To cite this article
J. Preethi, K. Vennila, S. Penislusshiyan, S. Velvizhi, Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Role of Ziziphus jujuba Leaves on Paracetamol Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats, Journal of Diseases and Medicinal Plants. Special Issue: Pharmacological Action of Medicinal Plants: Health and Diseases. Vol. 2, No. 1-1, 2016, pp. 1-10. doi: 10.11648/j.jdmp.s.2016020101.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Ahsan, R., Islam M. K., Musaddik, A., Haque, E. (2009). Hepatoprotective Activity of methanol extract of some medicinal plants against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Global Journal of Pharmacology, 3(3): 116-122.
[2]
Valko. M, Leibfritz. D, Moncol. J, Cronin. M, Mazur. M, Telser. J, et al., (2007). Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease, Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 39 44–84.
[3]
Venkat Raji Reddy G., Vijay Kumar R., Rama V., Krishna Reddy M and Narsimha Reddy Y., (2015). Preliminary Hepatoprotective Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity. In Albino Rats. International Journal Of Recent Scientific Research., Vol. 6, Issue, 7: 4946-4951.
[4]
Saleem TS, Chetty SM, Ramkanth S, Rajan VST, Kumar KM, Gauthaman K. (2010) Hepatoprotective herbs: A review. Int J Res Pharma Sci; 1: 1-5.
[5]
Chaudhari N. B., Chittam K. P., Patil V. R., et al., (2009). Hepatoprotective activity of Cassia fistula seeds against paracetamol-induced hepatic injury in rats, Arch. Pharm. Sci. Res. 1 (2) 218–221.
[6]
Hussain L., Ikram J., Rehman K., Tariq M., Ibrahim M., Akash H., et al., (2014) Hepatoprotective effects of Malva sylvestris L. Against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity, Turkish J. Biol. 38 396–402.
[7]
Zhang A, Sun H, Wang X (2013). Recent advances in natural products from plants for the treatment of liver diseases. Eur J Med Chem; 63: 570-577.
[8]
Arundel C, Lewis JH (2007). "Drug-induced liver disease in 2006". Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 23 (3): 244–54.
[9]
Furukawa M, Kasajima S (2010). Toxic hepatitis induced by a show-wu-pian, a Chinese herbal preparation. Intern Med. 2010; 49 (15): 1537-40.
[10]
Jaeschke H, Gores GJ, Cederbaum AI, Hinson JA, Pessayre D, Lemasters JJ (2002). "Mechanisms of hepatotoxicity". Toxicol. Sci. 65 (2): 166–76.
[11]
Wallace JL (2004). “Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity: No to the rescue” Br. J. Pharmacol. 143 (1): 1–2.
[12]
Adil Ramzan (2011). Drug interactions, drug induced hepatotoxicity / Liver Damage- Causes - Risk Factors – dili.
[13]
Karunakar Hegde, Arun B Joshi (2010). Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antipyretic Activity of Carissa Spinarum Root Extract. Scholar Research Library. 2(3): 255-260.
[14]
Gagliano N., Grizzi F., Annoni G., et al., (2007). Mechanism of aging and liver functions, Dig. Dis. Sci. 25 118–123.
[15]
Kelava T., Cavar I., Culo F., et al., (2010). Influence of small doses of various drug vehicles on acetaminophen-induced liver injury, Can. J. Physiol. Pharma-col. 88 960–967.
[16]
Leffers, H, et al (2010). "Intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics is a risk factor for development of male reproductive disorders in human and rat". Human Reproduction 25 (1): 235–244.
[17]
Howtan K et al (2011). Impact of different pack sizes of paracetamol in the United Kingdom and Ireland on intentional overdoses: a comparative study Biomed central.
[18]
Lawrence J., Moore E., Port L., Danchin M., Connell T., (2009). "Paracetamol as a risk factor for allergic disorders". The Lancet 373 (9658): 119–119.
[19]
Malaya Gupta, Upal Kanti Mazumder, Thangavel Siva Kumar, Periyasamy Gomathi and Ramanathan Sambath Kumar (2004). Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Bauhinia racemosa against Paracetamol and Carbon Tetra-chloride Induced Liver Damage in Rats. Iranian Journal of Pharmacology & Therapeutics IJPT 3: 12-20.
[20]
Chaterrjee, T. K., (2000). Medicinal Plants with hepatoprotective properties. Herbal Options. Books and Applied Allied (P) Ltd., Calcutta, pp: 143.
[21]
Pingale S. S., and others Pingale et al., (2008). Acute toxicity study for Cissus quadrangularis whole plant powder, Pharmacologyonline, 2: 256-262.
[22]
Bhattacharyya D., Pandit S., Mukherjee R., Das N. and Sur T. K. (2003). Hepatoprotective effect of himoliv, a polyherbal formulation in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol; 47 (4): 435–440.
[23]
Yue-Zhong S (1998). Recent natural products based drug development: a pharmaceutical industry perspective. J Nat Prod.; 61: 1053-71.
[24]
Pandey M, Debnath M, Gupta S, Chikara SK (2011). Phytomedicine: an Ancient approach turning into future potential source of therapeutics. J Pharmacogn Phytother.; 3(3): 27-37.
[25]
Ravishankar B, Shukla VJ (2007). Indian systems of medicine: a brief profile. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med.; 4(3): 319-37.
[26]
Kaido TL, Veale DJ, Havlik I, Rama DB (1997). Preliminary screening of plants used in South Africa as traditional herbal remedies during pregnancy and labour. J Ethnopharmacol. 55(3): 185-91.
[27]
Pradeesh S and Swapna T. S. (2015), In vitro Hepatoprotective activity of a wild medicinal plant from Western Ghats - Bidens Biternata (lour.) Merr. & Sheriff. International Journal of Research and Reviews in Pharmacy and Applied sciences. Vol. 5 Issue. 2 Pg: 1246-1250.
[28]
Jiang J.-G., Huang X.-J., Chen J., Lin Q.-S (2007)."Comparison of the sedative and hypnotic effects of flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides extracted from Semen Ziziphus jujube" Natural Product Research 21: 4 (310-320).
[29]
Timna Naftali, Haya Feingelernt et al (2008). Ziziphus jujuba extract for the treatment of Chronic Idiopathic Constipation: A controlled clinical trial. Digestion 2008; 78: 224-228.
[30]
Shirdel Z, Madani H, Mirbadalzadeh R (2009). Investigation into the hypoglycemic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ziziphus jujuba leaves on blood glucose and lipids in Alloxan- induced diabetes in rats. Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Lipid Disorders; pp 13-19.
[31]
Mill Goetz P (2009). "Demonstration of the psychotropic effect of mother tincture of Ziziphus jujuba". Phytotherapie7: 1 (31-36).
[32]
Preeti, Tripathi S (2014). Ziziphus jujuba: A Phytopharmacological review. Int J Res Dev Pharm Life Sci.; 3(3): 959-966.
[33]
Prasanna Kumar S. R, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq et al (2009). Protective effect of Ziziphus jujuba fruit extract against Paracetamol and Thioacetamide induced hepatic damage in rats. The Internet Journal of Pharmacology. Volume 7 Number 1.
[34]
Raman N (2006). Phytochemical Technique; New Indian Publishing Agencies: New Delhi p. 19.
[35]
Iyengar, M. A., (1995). Study of Crude Drugs. 8th ed., Manipal Power Press, Manipal, India. pp 2.
[36]
Siddiqui AA and Ali. M (1997). Practical pharmaceutical chemistry. 1st edition. CBS Publishers and Distributors New Delhi. 126-131.
[37]
Ayoola G. A., Folawewo A. D., Adesegun S. A., Abioro O. O., Adepoju-Bello A. A., Coker H. A. B (2008). Phytochemical and antioxidant screening of some plants of apocynaceae from South West Nigeria. African Journal of Plant Science Vol. 2 (9), pp. 124-128.
[38]
Luck H. (1974). Method in enzymatic analysis-2(ED. Bergmeyer), Acadamic press, NewYork, 885.
[39]
Reddy K. P., Subhani S. N., Khan P. A. and Kumar K. V. (1995). Effect of light and benzyl adenine on dark-treated growing rice (oryza sativa) leaves, Changes in peroxidase activity, Plant cell Physiol., 26: 987-994.
[40]
Misra H. P and Ridovich A. (1971). The role of superoxide anion in the antioxidant of epinedhrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase, J. Biol. chem., 247; 3170-3171.
[41]
Esterbaur H., Schwaetz E and Hayan M (1977). A rapid assay for catechol oxidase and laccase using to –nitro-5-thiobenzoic acid, Anl. Bio Chem., 77: 489-494.
[42]
Moron M. S., Depierre J. N. and Mannerisk V. C. (1979). Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver, Biochemical Biophusica acta., 582: 67-68.
[43]
Malick C. P and Singh M. B (1980). Estimation of polyphelnols, In: Plant enzymology and histoenzymology, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, 286.
[44]
Wilkes JM, Clark LE, Herrera JL (2005). Acetaminophen overdose in pregnancy; South Med J; 98(11): 1118-22.
[45]
Dargan PI, Jones AL (2002). Acetaminophen poisoning: an update for the intensivist, Crit Care.; 6 (2): 108-10.
[46]
Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Sambath R (2003). Hepatoprotective and antioxidant role of Caesalipinia bonducella on Paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Nat Prod Sci,; 9: 186-91.
[47]
Reitzman S and Frankel S (1957). A Colorimeter method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalo acetic acid, glutamic pyruvate transaminase. Am J Clin Pathol; 28: 56‐63.
[48]
King EJ and Armstrong AR (1934). A convenient method for determining serum and bile phosphatase activity. Canad. Med. Ass. J.; 31: 376-381.
[49]
Mahajan R. T and Chopda M. Z (2009). "Phyto-pharmacology of Ziziphus jujuba mill - A plant review" Pharmacognosy Reviews 3: 6 (320-329).
[50]
Kozer E., Evans S., Barr J., Greenberg R., Soriano I and Bulkowstein M (2003). Glutathione glutathione dependent enzyme and antioxidant status in erythrocytes from children treated with high dose paracetamol. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol 55: 234-240.
[51]
Warner D, Sheng H, Batinic-Haberle I (2004). "Oxidants, antioxidants and the ischemic brain". J Exp Biol 207 (Pt 18): 3221–31.
[52]
Laszlo Goth (2008). "Catalase Deficiency and Type 2 Diabetes". Diabetes Care 24 (10): e93–e93.
[53]
Jafri MA., Subhani MJ., Javed K and Singh S (1999). Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Cassia occidentalis against paracetamol and ethyl alcohol intoxication in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol 66: 355-361.
[54]
Shymal S., Latha P. G., Shine V. J., Suja S. R., Rajasekharan S and Devi T. G (2006). Hepatoprotective effects of Pittosporum neelghrrense Wight and Arn, a popular Indian ethanomedicine. J. Ethnopharmacol., 107: 151-155.
[55]
Waring JF; Jolly RA; Ciurlionis R; Lum PY; Praestgaard JT; Morfitt DC; Buratto B; Roberts C et al. (2001). "Clustering of hepatotoxins based on mechanism of toxicity using gene expression profiles". Toxicology and applied pharmacology (1): 28–42.
[56]
Manov I, Motanis H, Frumin I, Iancu TC (2006). "Hepatotoxicity of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs: ultrastructural aspects". Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 27 (3): 259–72.
[57]
Kanchana. N and Mohamed Sadiq A., (2010). Hepatoprotective effect of plumbago zeylanica on paracetamol induced liver toxicity in rats. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Issue 1.
[58]
Xue Z., Feng W., Cao J., Cao D and Jiang W (2009). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents in peel and pulp of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill) fruits. J. Food Biochem. 33: 613–629.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186