Participation of Project Beneficiaries in Planning and Implementation of Poverty Reduction Policies and Projects in Baringo North Sub-County: Gendered Perspective
In most low and middle income countries, poverty has been a critical challenge. This has been more real especially in Nations where social problems like gender imbalance, marginalization, tribalism and corruption are rampant. In such Nations, women and children have become more vulnerable than the male counterparts. Numerous efforts have been initiated by different stakeholders including governments and non-governmental organizations. These efforts include formulation of poverty reduction policies and implementation of community based poverty reduction projects. Studies have suggested that inclusivity and community involvement is important if such projects are to succeed. This study sought to examine participation of project beneficiaries in the planning and implementation of poverty reduction policies and projects in Baringo North Sub- County, from a gendered perspective. The study collected data from community members including; church leaders, government officials, officials from non-governmental organizations and members of the community. The study revealed that both men and women were involved in fundraising and resource mobilizations and sometimes they were engaged in projects activities. Similarly, majority of the beneficiaries participated as project members, others as the leaders of those projects, some as community representatives while the least played the role of being contact persons while a significant number did not have a single role to play in those projects, majority of who were women. More so, it is worth noting that in all the participation, women formed the least number from idea formulation to implementation. Participation by the project beneficiaries in the planning and implementation of the projects significantly differed on the basis of the gender of the respondents. This therefore implies that gender variable determined allocation of opportunities and responsibilities in the projects. The study recommends that community members should be actively involved in the entire project cycle in order to eliminate the feelings of discrimination on the impacts of the projects. It is also suggested that all community members should be involved at all levels in the project cycle even if it is attending meetings so that they can know what is happening and air their views. That will go a long way in promoting a sense of ownership and to ensure success and sustainability. It will also promote transparency and accountability which help in the proper use of resources and benefit.
Lilian R. Chesikaw,
Participation of Project Beneficiaries in Planning and Implementation of Poverty Reduction Policies and Projects in Baringo North Sub-County: Gendered Perspective, Advances in Sciences and Humanities.
Vol. 2, No. 5,
2016, pp. 48-55.
AgriFin (2013). Trade Finance: Warehouse and Inventory Management in Africa. Retrieved March 28, 2016, from AgriFin:http://agrifinfacility.org/trade-finance-warehouse-and-inventory-management-africa
Aliber, M. (2001). Chronic poverty and development policy. Cape Town: University of Western Cape.
Anderson, M. (1999). The poor are not us; poverty and pastoralism. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishing.
Ayako, B. A & Katumanga M. (1997). Review of property in Kenya. Nairobi: Institute of Policy Analysis and Research.
Baringo District Data Profile. (2006). District Development Department. Kabarnet.
Barker, D. and Edith K. (2006). Feminist economics and the World Bank, history, theory and policy. London: Routledge.
Beall, J. and Clert, C. (2000) Social exclusion and Globalization; Implications for Social Policy and Urban Governance. London: Department of social Policy, London School of Economics, World Bank.
Best, J. W. & Khan, J. V. (1998). Research in Education (5th ed.). New Delhi: Prentice Hall.
Black, T. R. (1995). Evaluating Social Science Research: An Introduction. London: Sage.
Bogdan, R. C. & Biklen, S. K. (1992). Qualitative Research for Education: An introduction to Theory and Methods. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Burkey, S. (1993). People First; A Guide to Self Reliant Participatory Rural Development. London: Zed Books Ltd,
Bryman, A. (2004). Social Research Methods. New York: Oxford University.
Buzan, Tony. (1995) The Mind Map Book: Radiant Thinking London: BBC Books.
CARE (2002). Defining characteristics of rights based approach, promoting rights and responsibilities. Atlanta USA.
Catagay, N, Elson, D. and Grown, C. (2000) Growth trade Finance and Gender Inequality World Development.
Chambers. R. (1995) “Poverty and Livelihoods: Whose reality Counts?” IDS discussion paper No.347. UK.
Chambers, R. (1992). Rural Appraisal: Rapid, Relaxed and Participatory; Discussion Paper NO.311, Success: IDS, UK.
Chambers, R. (1991). Rural Development; Putting the Last First. New York. Longman Scientific & Technical.
Chambers, R. (1989). Vulnerability: How the Poor Cope. IDS Bulletin, Uk.
Cohen, L. & Manion, L. (2000). Research Methods in Education (2nd ed.). London: Croon Helm.
Colclough, C. Rose, P and Tembon, M. (2000). Gender inequalities in Primary Schooling: the roles of poverty and adverse cultural practice. International Journal of Education Development.
COMESA (2002). Gender Policy. Lusaka, Zambia Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination against women in Kenya. Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi.
Creswell, J. W. (2003). Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Eade, D. (2010). Development in Practice; Stimulating Thought for Action, New York: Routledge.
Edith, K. and Barker, D. (2006). Feminist Economics and The World Bank, History, Theory and Policy. New York: Routlegde.
Emma, T. L. (2003). Food Insecurity and Coping Strategies in semi-Arid Areas. Sweden: Stockholm University.
Eversole, R. (2005). Indigenous Peoples &poverty and International Perspectives. London and New York: Zed Books.
Flavell, J. H. (1963). The Developmental Psychology of Jean Piaget. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Flick, U. (2002). An Introduction to Qualitative Research (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications.
Foeken, D. (2008) In side Poverty and Development in Africa, critical reflection on pro- poor policies. Brill, Lei Nairobi den, Netherlands.
Fowler, F. J. Jr. (1993). Survey Research Methods (2nd ed.) Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Fraenkel, J. R. & Wallen E. N. (2000). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. (4th Ed. Boston: McGraw Hill
Goetz. A, M (1997). Getting Institutions Rights for Women in Development. London and New York: Zed books.
Goetz, A. M (1995). Macro-Meso-Micro Linkages; Understanding Gendered Institutional Structures and Practices; Ottawa, USA.
GOK (2010). Constitution of Kenya, Laws of Kenya 2010, Nairobi; National Council of Law Reporting
GoK (2003). Millennium Development Goals; A Progress Report for Kenya. Nairobi: Government Printer.
GoK (2007). Kenya Vision 2030. Nairobi: Government Printers.
GOK (1999). National Poverty Eradication plan 1999-2015: Office of the president, Department of the Development Coordination. Nairobi: Government printers.
Gready, P. and Ensor, J. (2005). Reinventing Development; Translating Rights-Based Approaches from Theory into Practice. New York: Zed books.
Gutierrez, (2003). Macro Economics making Gender matter; Concepts, Policies, institutional Change in Developing countries. London and New York: Zed books.
Hodgson, D. L. (1995). The Politics of Gender, Ethnicity, and Development; Images Intervention and Reconfiguration of Maasai Identities. New York: University of Michigan.
Hughes, (2002). The World Bank Source book for Poverty Reduction Strategies. Washington: World Bank.
Illife, J. (1987). The African poor; A History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jonson, U. (2003). Human Rights Approach to Development Programming. Nairobi: UNICEF Kenya.
Kabeer, N. (2003). Gender Mainstreaming in Poverty Eradication and the Millennium Development Goals; A handbook for policy-makers and other stakeholders. Commonwealth Secretariat, United Kingdom
Kabeer, K. (1994). Reversed Realities: Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought. London: Commonwealth Secretariat, United Kingdom.
Kathuri, J. K. & Pals, A. D. (1993). Introduction to Educational Research. Njoro, Educational Material Centre, Egerton University.
Kerre F. (1994). The Impact of the SAPs on Kenyan Women Small Scale Enterprises: The case of Nairobi and Eldoret, Unpublished Paper.
Kerlinger, F. N. (1983). Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Renehart and Winston.
Kolawole, May E. M. (2004). Re-conceptualizing African Gender Theory: Feminism, Womanism, and the Arere Metaphor. In Arnfred, S. (Ed) Re thinking Sexualities in Africa. Uppsala: The Nordic Africa Institute.
Kolawale, Mary E. M. (1997). Womanism and African Consciousness. Eritrea. Africa.
Kombo, K. D. & Tromp, A. L. (2006). Proposal and Thesis Writing: An introduction Nairobi: Pauline’s publication Africa.
Kothari, C. R. (2007). Research Methodology, Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: New Age international (P) Ltd
Kubasu, L. (2009). Baringo North Constituency Strategic Plan 2009-2019. Kabarnet. Nairobi: Government Printer.
Martinez, C. A (1996). Study of the Problem of Discrimination Against Indigenous Populations; New York: United Nations.
McNamara, C. (1999). General Guidelines for Conducting Interviews. Minnesota.
Minh, Trinh T. (1989), Woman, Native, Other. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Ministry of Education. (2007). Gender Policy in Education. Nairobi: Government Printer.
Ministry Gender, Sports, Culture and Social Services (2005). Guidelines for the Women the Enterprises Fund. Nairobi: Downtown Printing works Ltd.
Momsen, J. (2004). Gender and Development. London. Routledge.
Molyneux and Lasaar (2003). Doing the Right Thing. London: ITGD.
Mugenda, O. M. & Mugenda, A. G. (2003). Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods. Nairobi Acts Press.
Mujis, D. (2004). Doing quantitative Research in Education with SPSS. London;Sage Publications
Mutheshi, J. (2006). Mapping Best Practices: Promoting gender equality and advancement of Kenyan women. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation.
Nitko, A. J. (1996). Educational Assessment of Students. New Jersey. Messrill.
Njeru, O, Gondi,(2005)Policy Based Approaches to Poverty Reduction in Kenya; strategies and civil society engagement,, UNDP, Nairobi, Kenya.
Nyamongo, I, (1998) Political Power and Gender equity: A Case Study of Nairobi and Nyeri Districts, Unpublished. Nairobi: Ministry of Planning and national development
Omiti. J, Owino. W. and Odundo (2002). Poverty Reduction efforts in Kenya: Institutions, Capacity and Policy. Ipar discussion paper 033/2002, Nairobi, Kenya
Orodho, A. J. and Kombo, D. K. (2002). Research Methods. Nairobi: Kenyatta University, Institute of Open Learning.
Opie, K. (2004). Doing Educational Research, A Guide to First Time Researchers. London: Sage.
Oxfam (2000) Towards Global equity; Strategic Plan 2001-2004. London: Oxfam international, UK.
Palmer, I. (1991). Gender and Population in the Adjustment of African Economics: Planning for change. Geneva: International Labour Organization.
Pilcher, J. (2006) 50 Key Concepts in Gender Studies. New Delhi. Sage Publications.
Republic of Kenya (2010). The Constitution of Kenya. National Council for Reporting, Nairobi, Kenya.
Republic of Kenya (2009) National Coordinating Agency for Population. Baringo District, Kabarnet. Nairobi: Government Printer.
Rubin, H. J. & Rubin, I. S. (1995). Qualitative Interviewing. The Art of Hearing Data. London: Sage.
Saunders, (2000). Research Methods for Business Students. 5th ed. Washington: Prentice Hall
Segupta, A. (2003). The Human Rights to Development; Paper presented to Nobel Symposium Oslo, Norway.
Sen, A. K. (1991) Poverty and Famines; An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Clarendon Oxford Press.
Strauss, J. F. (2003) Macro-economics and Gender: Options for their Integration into a State Agenda. New York and London: Zed Books.
Tuckman, B. W. (1994). Conducting Educational Research. New York: Harcourt Brace College.
UNDP (2015). Sustainable Development Goals, New York: UNDP.
UNDP (2006) Millennium Development Goals Needs Assessment Report. Nairobi: Ministry of Planning and National Development.
UNDP (2005). A Fair Share for Women; Briefing Kit on Gender &Millennium Development Goals. Nairobi: Association of Media Women in Kenya (AMWIK).
UNDP (2004). Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University press.
UNDP (2003a). Poverty Reduction and Human Rights. New York: UNDP.
UNDP (2003b). Report from the Inter-Agency workshop on implementing a Human Rights- based approach in the context. Stamford. UNDP.
UNDP (1997). Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
Van Cott, D. L (2000) The Friendly Liquidation of the Past: The Politics of Diversity in Latin America, Pittsburg: University of Pittsburg.
Waller, R. D (1993b) Being Maasai; Ethnicity and Identity in East Africa. London: James Currey.
Webster, M. (1985). New Collegiate Dictionary. Meriam: Webster Inc.
Wellington, J. J. (1996). Methods and Issues in Educational Research. Shieffield: University of Sheielfield, Division of Education.
World Bank (2015). Improving Delivery in Development; The role of Voice, Social Contract and Accountability. The World Bank Legal Review Vol.6, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Washington DC.
World Bank (2002) A World Bank Policy Research Report; Engendering Development Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources, and Voice. New York. Oxford University Press.
Zinkmund, W. (1998). Business Research Methods. New York: Dryden Press.