Reliability and Validity of the Ukrainian Version of the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form 3 (YSQ-S3)
Advances in Sciences and Humanities
Volume 4, Issue 4, August 2018, Pages: 56-61
Received: Aug. 14, 2018; Accepted: Nov. 1, 2018; Published: Nov. 29, 2018
Views 573      Downloads 80
Soorena Sardarzadeh, Department of Psychodiagnostics and Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Taras Shevchenko National University, Kyiv, Ukraine
Article Tools
Follow on us
Objective: This study aims to investigated the reliability and validity of the Ukrainian version of third version of the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S3; Young, 2005) and provide expected scores for nonclinical samples. Method: The latest version of the questionnaire, the YSQ-S3, has received little attention, and its Ukrainian adaptation has yet to be validated. The participants were 1200 nonclinical persons of both gender, male (55%) and female (45%). The majority of participants had a bachelor's degree, which includes 31% of the statistical sample. The Young Schema Questionnaire assesses early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and schema domains. This study performed reliability analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and second and third-order confirmatory factor analysis. TheYSQ-S3 proved to be reliable and corresponded to the theoretically proposed 18-dimensional structure. Results: Schema scores were positively associated with measures of psychopathology and personality disorder, indicating convergent validity. The results of the study showed that due to the Cronbach's alpha that is higher than 0.7, the reliability of all variables is desirable. Confirmatory factor analyses support the schema domains. We conclude that the YSQ-S3 is a psychometrically sound instrument that can be used Ukraine in research on early maladaptive schemas. Further research is necessary particularly in larger clinical samples.
Early Maladaptive Schema, Young Schema Questionnaire, Reliability, Validity
To cite this article
Soorena Sardarzadeh, Reliability and Validity of the Ukrainian Version of the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form 3 (YSQ-S3), Advances in Sciences and Humanities. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2018, pp. 56-61. doi: 10.11648/j.ash.20180404.11
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Young, J. E., Klosko J. S. & Weishaar M. E. (2003). Schema Therapy a Practitioner’s guid. New York: Guilford Press.
Farrell, J. M, Shaw, I. A., & Webber, M. A. (2009). A schema-focused approach to group psychotherapy for outpatients with borderline personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 40, 317–328.
Giessen-Bloo, J, van Dyck, R., Spinhoven, P, van Tilburg, W, Dirksen, C, van Asselt, T., Arntz, A.
Gude, T., & Hoffart, A. (2008). Change in inter personal problems after cognitive agoraphobia and schema-focused therapy versus psychodynamic treatment as usual of inpatients with agoraphobia and cluster C personality disorders. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49, 195–199.
Nadort, M., Arntz, A., Smit, J. H., Giessen-Bloo, J, Eikelenboom, M., Spinhoven, P., van Dyck, R. (2009). Implementation of outpatient schema therapy for borderline personality disorder with versus without crisis support by the therapist outside office hours: A randomized trial. Behavior Research and Therapy, 47, 961–973.
Nordahl, H. M, & Nysaeter, T. E. (2005). Schema therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder: A single case series. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 36, 254–264.
Schmidt, N. B., Joiner, T. E., Young, J. E., & Telch, M. J. (1995). The Schema Questionnaire: Investigation of psychometric properties and the hierarchical structure of maladaptive schemas. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19, 295–321.
Young, J. E. (2005). Young Schema Questionnaire – Short Form 3 (YSQ-S3). New York, NY: Cognitive Therapy Center.
Beckley, K. (2007). Shema Therapy. Contemporary Psychotherapy.
Young, J. E. (2006). Young Schema Questionnaire (German version, YSQ-S3) (H. Berbalk, J. Grutschpalk, E. Parfy, & G. Zarbock, Trans.). Eckernförde: Institut für Schematherapie.
Kriston, L., Schäfer, J, Härter, M., & Hölzel, L. (2010, July). All the same? Factorial structure of the Young Schema Questionnaire – Short Form 3 (YSQ-S3). Paper presented at the 4th Annual International Society of Schema Therapy Meeting, Berlin, Germany.
Rijo, D, & Gouveia, P. (2008, October). A confirmatory factor analysis study of the YSQ-S3 in a large Portuguese sample. Paper presented at the 3rd Annual International Society of Schema Therapy Meeting, Coimbra, Portugal.
Lockwood, G. (2011, February 12). Do schema domain sexist? [Onlineblog]. Retrieved from
Cudeck, R (1989). Analysis of correlation matrices using covariance structure models. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 317–327. Derogatis, L. R. (1992). The SCL-90-R, administration, scoring and procedures manual (2nd Ed.). Towson, MD: Clinical Psychometric Research.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2009). Multivariate data analysis (7th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Young J., 1990. Cognitive therapy of schema-oriented personality disorders. Translated by Sahebi A and Hamidpour H. Tehran: Arjmand publications.
Young, J. E., & Lindemann, M. (1992). An integrative schema-focused model for personality disorders. In Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy.
Young, J. E. (1999). Cognitive Therapy for personality disorders: A Schema Focused approach. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resourse Press.
Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. New York: Guilford.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186