Science Learner’s Material for Grade 10: Examining Multicultural and Gender Representation
Advances in Sciences and Humanities
Volume 5, Issue 1, February 2019, Pages: 20-26
Received: Dec. 17, 2018; Accepted: Jan. 16, 2019; Published: Feb. 9, 2019
Views 598      Downloads 107
Norjanah Umpara Derico, Sultan Langco National High School, DepEd-ARMM, Division of Lanao del Sur II, Malabang, Philippines
Wardah Dirampatun Guimba, College of Education, Mindanao State University, Marawi City, Philippines
Jerryk Comawas Alico, Senior High School, Mindanao State University, Marawi City, Philippines
Article Tools
Follow on us
Science textbooks are presumed to be indigenized, culturally sensitive, integrated with personal and ethical aspect of life and socially and environmentally aligned to the basic tenets of the k-12 basic education curriculum. This study is conducted to add to scanty literature on textbook analysis using Bennett's four core values of comprehensive multicultural curriculum in the Philippine context. These four core values are: (i) respect for human rights and human dignity, (ii) acceptance and appreciation and diversity, (iii) responsibility to the world community, and (iv) respect to the earth. Content analysis was employed in this study where both “manifest content” i.e. the visible, surface content and “latent content” or the underlying meaning of manifest content was examined. The researchers read and analyzed the content of the textbook based on the definition or set of words given then transcribed it on the checklist developed based on Bennett Conceptual model of comprehensive multiculturalism. After analyzing the data, the distribution and frequency of the core values were tallied, and calculated for its percentage and chi square test. Findings revealed that the Science Learner’s Material for Grade 10 elusively reflected multiculturalism in the textbook. However, portrayals of gender inequalities appeared in the textbook, males outnumbered the females. Teachers play major roles infusing and emphasizing multicultural elements in the teaching and learning process in the classroom. Textbooks developers need to pay more attention in incorporating multicultural elements in the Science textbooks and should promote gender equality representation in the textbook.
Content Analysis, Science Textbook, Multicultural Reflection, Gender
To cite this article
Norjanah Umpara Derico, Wardah Dirampatun Guimba, Jerryk Comawas Alico, Science Learner’s Material for Grade 10: Examining Multicultural and Gender Representation, Advances in Sciences and Humanities. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2019, pp. 20-26. doi: 10.11648/j.ash.20190501.13
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Acosta, H. D., Alvarez, L. A., Angeles, D. G., Arre, R. D., Carmona, P. P., Garcia, A. S., et al. (2015). Science Learner's Manual for Grade 10, 1st edn. Pasig City: Rex Publishing House.
Banks, J. A., & Banks, M. B. (2001). Multicultural Education 4th Edition. USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Banks, J. A., & Banks, C. A. M. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of research on multicultural education (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Banks, J. & C. McGee Banks [eds]. (2010). Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. USA United States.
Bennett, C. I. (2003). Comprehensive multicultural education: Theory and practice. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Brown, E. (2004). What precipitates change in cultural diversity awareness during a multicultural course: The message or the method? Journal of Teacher Education 55, 325–340.
Clark, L. V. (2010). Productive Dissonance: A Musical-Analytic Exploration of Teacher Educator Perceptions in a Multicultural Education Program. International journal of multicultural education, 1-15.
Cobern, W. W., & Loving, C. C. (2018). Defining "Science" in a Multicultural World: Implications for Science Education. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1-16.
Deauna, M. C. (1996). Elementary Statistics for Basic Education. Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc.
Dejene, W. (2017). Assessing Ethiopia Primary SchoolSecond Cycle Social Studies Textbooks for Adequate Reflections of Multiculturalism. Journal of Education and Practice, 1-10.
Frazier, L. (1977). The multicultural facet of education. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 11 (1), 10-16.
Gaul, A. (2014). Where are the Minority? The elusiveness of Multiculturalism and Positive Recognition in /sri Lankan History Textbooks. Journal of Education Media, Memory, and Society, 1-20.
Gay, G. (2004). The Importance of Multicultural Education II. Educational Leadership, 1-8.
Gonzales, E. T. (2005). Managing Diversity in the Philippines: Is Government working hard to provide services in equal ways? Retrieved October 16, 2018, from>pdf>gonzaleze.
Hernandez, H. (2001). Multicultural Education: A Teacher's Guide to Linking Context, Process, and Content, 2nd Edition. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Implementing Rules and Regulations of the enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2018, from Official Gazette:
Jackson, L. (2016). Learning about diversity in Hong Kong; Multiculturalism in Liberal Studies Textbooks. The Asia-Pacific Educational Researcher, 1-26.
K-12 Science Curriculum Guide. (2013). Retrieved October 15, 2018, from DepEd Tambayan:
Khine, M. S. (2013). The analysis of Science Textbooks for Instructional Effectiveness. Research Gate, 1-8.
Palces, K. M., Abulencia, A. S., & Reyes, W. M. (2015). Predicting the Priorities of Multicultural Education in a Philippines Teacher Education Institution: An exploratory study. EDUCARE: International Journal for Educational Studies, 1-10.
Pang, V. O. (2001). Multicultural education: A caring-centered, reflective approach. New York: McGraw-Hill
Stoilescu, D. (2014). A Critical Multicultural Analysis of a Romanian Textbook Taught in Elementary International Language Programs. Acta Didactica Napocensia, 1-16.
Sy-Luna, G. (2015). Multicultural education Program in Far Eastern University: A Basis for Enhancement. Retrieved october 17, 2018, from
Tarrayo, V. N. (2014). Gender Word (or World): Sexism in Philippines Preschool English Language Textbook. i-Manager's Journal on English Language Teaching, 1-8.
Terra, L., & Bromley, P. (2012). The Globalization of Multicultural Education in social Science Textbook: Cross-national analyses, 1950-2010. Research Gate, 1-9.
Zuñiga VI, R. C. (2010). “Multicultural Education: Introduction”. Available online also at:
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186