Key Relational Competencies and Business Performance: Evidences for Spanish Companies
European Business & Management
Volume 2, Issue 2, November 2016, Pages: 47-53
Received: Sep. 11, 2016; Accepted: Nov. 23, 2016; Published: Dec. 27, 2016
Views 2308      Downloads 70
Lidia García-Zambrano, Economic Financial II Department, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of the Basque Country UPV-EHU, Bilbao, Spain
Arturo Rodríguez-Castellanos, Economic Financial II Department, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of the Basque Country UPV-EHU, Bilbao, Spain
Article Tools
Follow on us
This paper seeks to test the existence of links between key relational competencies and business performance. With information from a survey conducted among business managers from Spain, and business performance data for 2009-2011 obtained from the Intertel database, non-parametric contrasts were performed in order to verify such links. The results show a positive link of the economic variables analysed with the key competencies linked to Relational Capital for Spain for 2009-2011 period, being only the differences in the growth in sales variable statistically significant. This relation shows the importance that key competencies linked to relational capital has to increase business results, during economic crisis period.
Competences, Relational Capital, Intangible Resources, Intellectual Capital, Business Results
To cite this article
Lidia García-Zambrano, Arturo Rodríguez-Castellanos, Key Relational Competencies and Business Performance: Evidences for Spanish Companies, European Business & Management. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2016, pp. 47-53. doi: 10.11648/j.ebm.20160202.15
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Alama, E. (2008). Capital intelectual y resultados empresariales en las empresas de servicios profesionales de España, Tesis Doctoral, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid.
Allen, D.; Wilburn, M. (2002). Linking Customer and Employee Satisfaction to the Botton Line. USA: American Society for Quality.
Amit, R.; Schoemaker, P. J. H. (1993). “Strategic Assets and Organizational Rent”, Strategic Management Journal, 14 (1), 33-46.
Aranburu, N.; Sáenz, J.; Blanco, C. (2015). “Structural Capital, Innovation Capability and Company Performance in Technology-based Colombian Firms”, Cuadernos de Gestión, 15 (1), 39-60.
Barney, J. B. (1986). “Strategic factor markets: expectations, luck and business strategy”, Management Science, 32 (10), 1231-1241.
Barney, J. B. (1991). “Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage”, Journal of Management, 17 (1), 99-120.
Barney, J. B. (1997). Gaining and sustaining competitive advantage. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.
Barney, J. B. (2001). “Is the resource-based `view´ a useful perspective for strategic management research? Yes”, Academy of Management Review, 26 (1), 41-56.
Bianchi-Martini, S.; Corvino, A.; Doni, F.; Rigolini, A. (2016). “Relational capital disclosure, corporate reporting and company performance: Evidence from Europe”, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 17 (2), 186–217.
Bontis, N. (2002). National Capital Intellectual Index: intellectual capital development in the Arab region. Institute for Intellectual Capital Research, Ontario.
Bradley, K. (1997). “Intellectual capital and the new wealth of nations II”, Business Strategy Review, 8 (4), 33–44.
Bueno, E. (Dir.) (2003). Model for the measurement and management of Intellectual Capital: Intellectus Model. Intellectus Documents, Nº 5. Madrid: Knowledge Society Research Centre.
Cabanelas, J.; Cabanelas, P.; Vaamonde, L. (2011). “The power of intangibles in high-profitability firms”, Total Quality Management, 22 (1), 29-42.
Cabrita, M.; Vaz, J. (2005). “Intellectual Capital and Value Creation: Evidence from the Portuguese Banking Industry”, Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, 4 (1), 11-20.
Cegarra, J. G.; Aledo, M D.; Martínez, E. A.; Moreno, L.; Pagan, J. M. (2005). “Perspectiva externa de los componentes del capital cliente”, Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa, 11 (3), 85-98.
Cohen, S.; Kaimenakis, N. (2007). “Intellectual Capital and Corporate Performance in Knowledge Intensive SMEs”, The Learning Organization, 14 (3), 241-262.
Delgado M.; Martín de Castro, G.; y Navas, J. (2011). “Organizational knowledge assets and innovation capability: Evidence from Spanish manufacturing firms”, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 12 (1), 5-19.
Edvinsson, L. and Malone, M. S. (1999). El capital intelectual: como identificar y calcular el valor de los recursos intangibles de su empresa, Barcelona: Gestión 2000.
Figueroa, P.; Costa, R.; Fernández, C. (2013). “The influence of relational capital on product innovation performance at innovative SMEs”. En García et al. (Eds.): Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Intellectual Capital, Academic Publishing Limited, Reading (UK), pp. 91-98.
García-Merino, D.; Rodríguez-Castellanos, A.; Arregui-Ayastuy, G.; Vallejo-Alonso, B. (2008). “Importancia y valoración de los intangibles: la percepción de los directivos”, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, 26 (3), 27-55.
García-Merino, J. D.; García-Zambrano, L.; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A. (2014). Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. 13 (1), 1-8.
Grant, R. M. (1991). “The Resource Based Theory of Competitive Advantage: Implications for Strategy formulation”, California Management Review, 33 (3), 114-135.
Hamel, G.; Prahalad, C. K. (1994). Competing for the future. Harvard Business Press, Boston MA.
Huang, C.; Hshueh, S. (2007). “A study on the relationship between intellectual capital and business performance in the engineering consulting industry: A path analysis”, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 13 (4), 265-271.
Johanson, U. (2005). “A Human Resource perspective on Intellectual Capital”. In Marr, B. (Eds), Perspective on Intellectual Capital. Multidisciplinary insights into management, measurement and reporting, Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann, pp 96-105.
Lev, B. (2001). Intangibles. Management, measurement and reporting, Brookings Institution, Washington.
Lev, B. and Zambon, S. (2003). “Intangibles and intellectual capital: an introduction to a special issue”, European Accounting Review, 12 (4), 597-603.
Lopez-Costa, J. A.; Munoz-Canavate, A. (2015). “Relational Capital and Organizational Performance in the Portuguese Hotel Sector”, Procedia Economics and Finance, 26 (1), 64-71.
Marshall, A. (1890). Principles of economics, Ed MacMillan, London.
Marr, B.; Roos, G. (2005). “A Strategy perspective of intellectual capital”. En Marr, B. (Ed.): Perspective of Intellectual Capital. Multidisciplinary insights into management, measurement and reporting, Elsevier (Boston), pp. 28-41.
Miles, J. (2009). “Capital intelectual y su impacto en los resultados de las organizaciones: un estudio empírico con empresas uruguayas que se postularon al Premio Nacional de Calidad”, Documento de Trabajo, Programa de Gestión del Conocimiento, Universidad Católica del Uruguay, Asunción.
Mills, P.; Morris, J. (1986). “Clients as “Partial” Employees of Service Organizations: Role Development in Client Participation”, Academy of Management Review, 11 (4), 726-735.
Porter, M. (1980). “How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy”, Harvard Business Review, New York, pp 102-116.
Porter, M. E (1985). "Technology and Competitive Advantage", Journal of Business Strategy, 5 (3), 60-78.
Prahalad, C. K.; Ramaswamy, V. (2000). “Co-opting customer competence” Harvard Business Review, 78 (1), 79-87.
Rodríguez-Castellanos, A.; Arregui-Ayastuy, G.; Vallejo-Alonso, Belén (2007). “Intangibles financial valuation: A method grounded on an IC-based taxonomy•. En Joia, L. A. (Ed.): Strategies for Information Technology and Intellectual Capital: Challenges and Opportunities, pp. 66-90. Hershey (USA) y London: Information Science Reference.
Roos, G.; Bainbridge, A.; Jacobsen, K. (2001). “Intellectual Capital as a strategic tool”, Strategic & Leadership, 29 (4), 21-26.
Rucci, A. J.; Kirn, S. P.; Quinn, R. T. (1998). “The employee-customer-profit chain at Sears”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 76 (January-February), pp. 82-97.
Schunder-TatzberS., M. (2004). “An integrative model for management and valuation of intellectual capital/assets. The PLEXUS model”. IC Congress Helsinki Papers, pp. 1–23.
Teece, D. J.; Pisano, G.; Shuen, A. (1997). “Dynamic Capabilities and Strategic Management”, Strategic Management Journal, 18 (7), 509-533.
Tornow, W.; Wiley, J. W. (1991). “Service Quality and Management Practices: A Look at Employee Attitudes, Customer Satisfaction, and Bottom-Line Consequences”, Human Resource Planning, 14 (2), 117-127.
Youndt, M. A.; Snell, S. A. (2004). “Human resource configurations, intellectual capital, and organizational performance”, Journal of Managerial Issues, 16 (1), 337-361.
Prahalad, C. K.; Ramaswamy, V. (2000). “Co-Option Customer Competence”, Harvard Business Review, 78 (1), 79-90.
Vavra, T. G. (1997). Improving Your Measurement of Customer Satisfaction: A Guide to Creating, Conducting, Analyzing, and Reporting Customer Satisfaction Measurement Programs. ASQ Quality Press, Milkwaukee.
Wang, J. (2008). “Investigating market value and intellectual capital for S&P500”, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 9 (4), 546-563.
Wang, W.; Chang, C. (2005). “Intellectual capital and performance in causal models. evidence from the information technology industry in Taiwan”, Journal of Intellectual Capital, 6 (2), 222-236.
Welbourne, T.; Prado del Val, M. (2009). “Relational Capital: Strategic Advantage for Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs) Through Negociation and Collaboration”, Group Decision and Negotiation, 18 (5), 483-498.
Wiley, J. W. (1996). “Linking survey results to customer satisfaction and business performance”. En Kraut A. (Ed.): Opinion Surveys in Organizations, Jossey-Bass (San Francisco), pp. 330-359.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186