Traditional Methods of Milk Processing and Preservation by Local Farmers in Kashongi Sub County Kiruhura District
American Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology
Volume 2, Issue 2, June 2017, Pages: 62-71
Received: Sep. 26, 2016; Accepted: Mar. 13, 2017; Published: Mar. 30, 2017
Views 2565      Downloads 254
Nuwemuhwezi Gershom, Department of Agriculture and Agribusiness, Bishop Stuart University, Mbarara, Uganda
Edward Ssemakula, Graduate School, Co-coordinator Bishop Stuart University, Uganda
Article Tools
Follow on us
This study was carried out to analyze traditional methods of milk processing and preservation by local farmers in Kashongi Sub County Kiruhura district. Milk producers in Kashongi Sub County own small and widely scattered farms, making access to markets a big challenge, given lack of well-developed infrastructure. Substantial amounts of milk remain at the farms, justifying preservation to avert total wastage. The study established the methods, equipment and materials used by the local farmers in milk processing, established the effectiveness of milk preservation methods used in the sub county and identified the possible areas of improvement on milk processing in the sub-county. The research design was descriptive in nature and therefore used qualitative methods to analyze the magnitude of the problem. It was partly quantitative because the findings were tallied, tabulated and calculated to percentages. A total of 160 respondents was targeted for this study. The category of the respondents that was selected are specifically cattle keepers, who have reared cattle for a long time. This category of people were selected because; they have reared cattle for a long time and know many aspects on the cow. Cattle keepers were specifically used because they directly deal with cattle products. The study findings revealed that quite number of local methods have been used to store, process and preserve milk. Some of these include; natural air cooling, boiling, traditional vessels like wooden churn and gravitational among others. These methods were used because they were favored these farmers. Focusing on Kashongi Sub County, these methods are widely used to preserve and store milk. However these local methods are not in line to preserve milk for long hours, and days, it is well known that these methods cannot go three to four days of preservation. Some strategies like provision of modern processing equipment, extension of agricultural services to train farmers on how to improve on handling milk should be provided by the government. Dairy products that can be manufactured by small scale dairies include fermented milk (Bongo - similar to yoghurt) and ghee. Some technologies for their improvement have been adapted to suit local conditions and some of the modified processing techniques have been tried successfully in Kashongi Sub-County areas to some farmers.
Traditional Methods, Milk Processing and Preservation, Increase Shelf Life, ‘Low Input–Low Output’ Approach to Maximize Production and Minimize Losses
To cite this article
Nuwemuhwezi Gershom, Edward Ssemakula, Traditional Methods of Milk Processing and Preservation by Local Farmers in Kashongi Sub County Kiruhura District, American Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2017, pp. 62-71. doi: 10.11648/j.ajset.20170202.12
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Athar, I. H., M. S. Bhatti and M. A. Shah (1996) Preservation of raw milk through activation of lactoperoxidase system (LPS). Journal of Food Science.
Bachman, M. R (1970) adapted techniques for collection, processing and marketing of milk in developing countries. Volume 2 milk collection and processing techniques Milchwiss.
Cook, N. B., and K. V. Nordlund. 2009. Review: The influence of the environment on dairy cow behavior, claw health and herd health lameness dynamics. Vet. J. 179: 360–369.
Ephraim Bekele and Tarik Kassaye (1987) Traditional Borana milk processing—efficient use of subtle factors needs further research work. ILCA Newsletter 6 (4): 4–5. ILCA (International Livestock Centre for Africa), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
FAO-RDDT (1990) Rural milk processing: A practical guide to small scale cheese making in E. Africa, Naivasha, Kenya.
FAO (2004) FAOSTAT data Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2004 [cited 2004]. Available from
Gilman William Thompson (2006) Practical Dietetics with Special Reference to Diet in Disease.
Isha Muzira Michael Ngarambe, Obed Ndakuu, Philip K Chirono (2006) A training guide for small-scale milk traders in Eastern Africa.
Journal of Retrieved 2014-05-23. King Alan (2002) Joint donor agencies study on the performance of and growth prospects for strategic exports in Uganda: Annex to case study on livestock and livestock products.
Kurwijila R. L (1981) are view of research and development of the dairy industry in Tanzania. Milk processing and marketing.
Kurwijila (1993) Some reflections on milk supply and consumption statistics in Tanzania with reference to the role of the traditional cattle herds.
Layne C (1994) The Berena Water of Southern Ethiopia: Synthesis of Pastoral research, development & change.
Mbaga, SH. Shayo, C. V., KurwijilaR. L. And Ryoba. R. (1990). Development of butter making technology. Techniques for small holder milk processing. Proc. 20th sci. conf. Tanzania.
Mdoe N. (1993). Constraints to milk marketing in the Kilimanjaro highlands of Tanzania.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186