Application of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in HIV Prevention: A Literature Review
Central African Journal of Public Health
Volume 1, Issue 1, June 2015, Pages: 1-8
Received: May 22, 2015; Accepted: May 31, 2015; Published: Jun. 15, 2015
Views 28965      Downloads 1710
Elvis E. Tarkang, Department of Population and Behavioural Science, School of Public Health, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Volta Region, Ghana
Francis B. Zotor, Department of Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Volta Region, Ghana
Article Tools
Follow on us
As part of a study that explored the factors associated with consistent condom use among senior secondary school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon, the Health Belief Model (HBM) was used as the framework. Literature was reviewed to ascertain how the entire HBM has been defined and what recommendations have been made as to how to apply the HBM as a framework in studies regarding HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this, a systemic review of literature was undertaken. Electronic databases, academic journals and books from various sources were accessed. Several key search terms relating to the HBM and HIV/AIDS prevention were used. Only references deemed useful for bibliographies of relevant texts and journal articles were included. The inclusion criteria were articles that provided information about HIV/AIDS prevention and the HBM constructs. Six constructs of the HBM (perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, perceived severity of HIV/AIDS, perceived benefit of condom use, perceived barriers to condom use, cues to action for condom use and condom use self-efficacy), and modifying factors were identified and applied as the framework for the study. The HBM was identified as the most commonly used theory in health education, health promotion and disease prevention, and thus provided the framework for the study. The underlying concept of the HBM is that behaviour is determined by personal beliefs or perceptions about a disease and the strategies available to decrease its occurrence.
Health Belief Model (HBM), HIV/AIDS Prevention, Sexual Behaviours, Consistent Condom Use
To cite this article
Elvis E. Tarkang, Francis B. Zotor, Application of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in HIV Prevention: A Literature Review, Central African Journal of Public Health. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2015, pp. 1-8. doi: 10.11648/j.cajph.20150101.11
L. Walker, G. Reid, and C. Cornnel, Waiting to happen: HIV/AIDS in South Africa (the bigger picture). Cape Town, Double Story Books 2004.
J. B. Pryor, and G. B. Reeder, The social psychology of HIV infection. New Jersey: Lawrence Er/baum Assocaites Publishers, 1993.
K. Dennill, L. King, M. Lock, and T. Swanepoel, Aspects of primary health care, Midrand Southern, 1999.
D. F. Polit, and C. T. Beck, Nursing research: principles and methods, 7th edition, Philadelphia, Lippincott, 2004.
M. Stanhope, and J. B. Lancaster, Community and public health nursing, 5th edition, St Louis, CV Mosby, 2000.
C. Abraham, P. Sheeran, and S. Orbell, Can social cognitive models contribute to the effectiveness of HIV-preventive behavioral interventions? A brief review of the literature and a reply to Foffe (1996; 1997) and Fife–schwa (1997), British Journal of Medical Psychology, 1998; vol. 71, pp. 297-310, 1998.
G. Groenewold, B. Bruijn, and R. Bilsborrow, Migration of the Health Belief Model (HBM): effects of psychology and migrant network characteristics on emigration intentions on five countries in West Africa and the Mediterranean region, Population association of America 2006 annual meeting, 2006.
Adolescent Reproductive Health Network, Health system and health promotion research in Eastern and Southern Africa. Report from the second ARHNe Workshop, Harare, Zimbabwe, October 11-16, 1998. Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo, Norway, 1998.
R. King, Sexual behaviour change for HIV: where have theories taken us? Geneva: UNAIDS Best Practise Collection, 1999. From:
F. M. Quinn, The Principles and practice of nursing education, 4th edition. Cheltenham, Nelson Thornes, 2000.
H. I. L. Brink, Fundamentals of research methodology for health care professionals, 2nd edition, Cape Town, Juta, 1999.
Jones and Bartlett (Publishers). Theoretical concepts. Health Belief Model. 2010; 31-36. Retrieved from: (Accessed on 12/02/2012).
L. K. Bartholomew, G. Parcel, G. Kok, N. H. Gottlieb, Behavior oriented theories used in health promotion. In J. Allegrante., & K. McLeroy (eds). Planning Health Promotion Programs. 2006; 81-135. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
K. Weld, D. Padden, G. Ramsey, and S. Bibbs, A framework for guiding health literacy research in populations with universal access to healthcare, Advances in Nursing Science, vol. 31(4), pp. 308-318, 2008.
N. Pender, C. Murdaugh, and M. A. Parsons, Individual models to promote health behavior. In M. Connon, D Macknight, K. Mortimer & S. Wrocklage (eds), Health promotion in Nursing Practice pp. 35-66. New York: Pearson, 2011.
R. Davidhizar, Critique of the Health belief Model, Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 8, pp. 467-472, 1983.
University of Twente. Health Belief Model. Unpublished online information, Netherlands, 2010. From
M. E. Buglar, K. M. White, and N. G. Robinson, The role of self-efficacy in dental patients’ brushing and flossing: Testing an extended Health belief Model, Patient Education and Counseling, vol. 78, pp. 269-272, 2010.
I. M. Rosenstock, The Health Belief Model: explaining health behavior through expectancies: in glanz, Lewis & Rimer (eds): health behavior and health education. San Francisco: Jossey – Bass Publishers, 1990.
D. F. Polit, and B. P. Hungler, Nursing research: principles and methods; 6th edition, Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1999.
University of Twente. Health Belief Model. The Netherlands: TCW, 2005. From:
Resource Centre for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention, (2007) From:
K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer, and F. M. Lewis, Health behaviour and health education, theory research and practice. NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inci, 2002.
J. J. Kronenfield, D. C. Glik, Perceptions of risk: its applicability in medical sociological research, Research in the Sociology of Health Care, vol. 9, pp. 307-334, 1991.
B. I. Mikhail, Transcultural adaptation, Health Belief Model scales, Journal of Nursing Scholarship, vol. 33(2), pp. 159-165, 2001.
K. M. Cummings, A. M. Jette, I. M. Rosenstock, Construct validity of the Health Belief Model, Health Educ Monogr, winter, vol. 6, pp. 394–405, 1978.
Honors. Communication Capestone. Spring 2001: the Health Belief Model. Health context Theory workbook, 2001. From:
L. W. Thomas, A critical feminist perspective of the Health Belief Model: implications for nursing theory, research, practices and education, Journal of Professional Nursing, vol. 11(4), pp. 246-252, 1995.
L. L. Onega, Educational theories, models, and principles applied to community and public health nursing in Stanhope, L and Lancaster, J. 2000: community and public health nursing; 5th edition. St Louis: CV Mosby, pp. 265-283, 2000.
C. Pechmann, Changing Adolescent Smoking Prevalence. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. Changing adolescent smoking prevalence: impact of advertising interventions. Tobacco Control Monograph No. 14. NIH Publication No. 02-5086, 2001.
A. S. Mc Cormarck, Revisiting college students’ knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS, 1987, 1991 and 1995, College Student Journal, vol. 31(3), pp. 356–363, 1999.
P. L. Chinn, and M. K. Kramer, Theory and nursing: a systematic approach, 4th edition, St Louis, Mosby, 1985.
V. A. Clarke, H. Lovegrove, A. Williams, and M. MacPherson, Unrealistic optimism and the Health Belief Model, Journal of Behavioural Medicine, vol. 23(4), pp. 367-376, 2000.
Resource Centre for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention. Theories and approaches: Health Belief Model, 2005. From:
S. J. Hiltabiddle, Adolescent condom use, the Health Belief Model and the prevention of sexually transmitted disease, Journal of Obstetric, Gynaecologic and Neonatal Nursing, vol. 25(1), pp. 61-66, 1996.
I. M. Rosenstock, V. J. Strecher, and M. H. Becker, Social Learning Theory and the Health Belief Model, Health Educ Q, vol. 15, pp. 175–183, 1988.
S. Agha, A. Karlyn, and D. Meekers, The promotion of condom use in non-regular sexual partnerships in urban Mozambique, Health Policy and Planning, vol. 16(2),1pp. 44-151, 2001.
D. L. Floyd, S. Prentice–Dunn, and R. W. Rogers, A meta-analysis of research in protection motivation theory, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 30, pp. 407-429, 2000.
A. Bandura, Self-efficacy: towards a unifying theory of behavioral change, Psychological Review, vol. 84, pp. 191-215, 1977.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186